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Staphylococcus Aureus

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ISBN: 9781789845921 9781789845938 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71376 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Staphylococcus aureus strains are an important medical infectious agent that causes a wide range of pathogeneses starting from colonization of the skin and mucosal surface to severe pathogenic effects such as septicemia. The mortality and morbidity from this pathogen are challenging issues for the healthcare premises. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) are causing severe infections due to the genes that are resistant to several antibiotics including methicillin, aminoglycosides, and others. Recently, there have been several reports related to failure of treatment plans caused by MRSA that led to Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (VISA) or, in sporadic cases, resistance to the drug of choice. This book highlights the new areas for the treatment of MRSA using natural products. The implementation of specific products produced by this organism can help the scientist to obtain a new window for treatments such as anticancer chemotherapy, antioxidants, etc.

Abiotic Stress in Plants - Mechanisms and Adaptations

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ISBN: 9789533073941 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.5772/895 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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World population is growing at an alarming rate and is anticipated to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand, agricultural productivity is not increasing at a required rate to keep up with the food demand. The reasons for this are water shortages, depleting soil fertility and mainly various abiotic stresses. The fast pace at which developments and novel findings that are recently taking place in the cutting edge areas of molecular biology and basic genetics, have reinforced and augmented the efficiency of science outputs in dealing with plant abiotic stresses. In depth understanding of the stresses and their effects on plants is of paramount importance to evolve effective strategies to counter them. This book is broadly dived into sections on the stresses, their mechanisms and tolerance, genetics and adaptation, and focuses on the mechanic aspects in addition to touching some adaptation features. The chief objective of the book hence is to deliver state of the art information for comprehending the nature of abiotic stress in plants. We attempted here to present a judicious mixture of outlooks in order to interest workers in all areas of plant sciences.

About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453887 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-388-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.

Actinobacteria - Basics and Biotechnological Applications

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ISBN: 9789535122487 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.5772/60457 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book presents an introductory overview of Actinobacteria with three main divisions: taxonomic principles, bioprospecting, and agriculture and industrial utility, which covers isolation, cultivation methods, and identification of Actinobacteria and production and biotechnological potential of antibacterial compounds and enzymes from Actinobacteria. Moreover, this book also provides a comprehensive account on plant growth-promoting (PGP) and pollutant degrading ability of Actinobacteria and the exploitation of Actinobacteria as ecofriendly nanofactories for biosynthesis of nanoparticles, such as gold and silver. This book will be beneficial for the graduate students, teachers, researchers, biotechnologists, and other professionals, who are interested to fortify and expand their knowledge about Actinobacteria in the field of Microbiology, Biotechnology, Biomedical Science, Plant Science, Agriculture, Plant pathology, Environmental Science, etc.

Actinobacteria in Special and Extreme Habitats: Diversity; Function Roles and Environmental Adaptations

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450138 Year: Pages: 229 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-013-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Actinobacteria are highly diverse prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although various studies have focused on the ecology of this phylum, data are still scant on the diversity, abundance and ecology of actinobacteria endemic to special and extreme environments, such as gut, plant, alkaline saline soil, deep sea sediments, hot springs and other habitats. Actinobacteria are well-known producers of a vast array of secondary metabolites, many of which have useful applications in medicine and agriculture. Furthermore, actinobacteria also have diverse functions in different environments apart from antibiotic production. For example, actinobacteria are reported to contribute to the break-down and recycling of organic compounds. They play a significant role in fixation of nitrogen, improvement plant growth, biodegradation, bioremediation and environmental protection. Therefore, understanding the actinobacterial diversity and distribution in such special environments is important in deciphering the ecological roles of these microorganisms and for biotechnological bioprospecting. Recent advances in cultivation, DNA sequencing technologies and -omics (metagenomics, metaproteomics etc) methods have greatly contributed to the rapid advancement of our understanding of microbial diversity, function and they interactions with environment. Furthermore, comparative genomic studies can provide overall information about actinobacterial speciation, evolution, metabolism and environment adaptation mechanisms. This research topic comprising reviews and original articles highlights the recent advances regarding the unexpectedly diverse/rare group of actinobacteria with special selective isolation methods or culture-independent methods, as well as their biological activities, ecophysiologica function and mechanisms from diverse special and extreme environments.

Active Antimicrobial Food Packaging

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ISBN: 9781789850031 9781789850048 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74450 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Active antimicrobial food packaging is a new generation of packaging. Antimicrobial food additives are incorporated in the food packaging systems to inhibit, retard, or inactivate microbial growth to extend the shelf life of foods. This book is composed of five chapters, and is aimed at introducing the reader to active antimicrobial food packaging, as well as concerns of the consumers on synthetic-based food additives.

Acute Phase Proteins - Regulation and Functions of Acute Phase Proteins

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ISBN: 9789533072524 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.5772/756 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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The two volumes of Acute Phase Proteins book consist of chapters that give a large panel of fundamental and applied knowledge on one of the major elements of the inflammatory process during the acute phase response, i.e., the acute phase proteins expression and functions that regulate homeostasis. We have organized this book in two volumes - the first volume, mainly containing chapters on structure, biology and functions of APP, the second volume discussing different uses of APP as diagnostic tools in human and veterinary medicine.

Acute Phase Proteins as Early Non-Specific Biomarkers of Human and Veterinary Diseases

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ISBN: 9789533078731 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.5772/1045 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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The two volumes of Acute Phase Proteins book consist of chapters that give a large panel of fundamental and applied knowledge on one of the major elements of the inflammatory process during the acute phase response, i.e., the acute phase proteins expression and functions that regulate homeostasis. We have organized this book in two volumes - the first volume, mainly containing chapters on structure, biology and functions of APP, the second volume discussing different uses of APP as diagnostic tools in human and veterinary medicine.

Advances in Aspergillus fumigatus pathobiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197897 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-789-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Aspergillus fumigatus is a human fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major infectious cause of death in the expanding population of immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients and transplant recipients. The mortality of IA remains high (30-70%) and emerging resistance to triazoles, the first-line antifungal drug class, is of particular concern. Second-line therapies for IA are limited by their toxicity (polyenes) or their lack of fungicidal activity (echinocandins). Identification of novel antifungal targets is an urgent need for improving the outcome of IA. A. fumigatus is a filamentous fungus exhibiting a complex developmental cycle and elaborated mechanisms of adaptation to allow the initiation and progression of infection in the human host. The fungal cell wall, with its unique and dynamic structure, is crucial for protecting cell integrity and evading the host immune system, also contributing to biofilm formation and virulence, and thus representing an ideal antifungal target. The emergence of azole resistance implies various and complex mechanisms that need to be further elucidated. Other important processes, such as biosynthetic pathways and toxin/metabolite production are important for fungal survival and propagation in the host environment, ultimately leading to disease. Moreover, the host immune response is a determinant factor in influencing the course of infection. The objective of this topic issue is to provide an overview of the recent advances in our understanding of A. fumigatus pathobiology and of IA pathogenesis to outline future research.

Advances in Ebola Control

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ISBN: 9781789230703 9781789230710 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69364 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:13

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Ebola epidemics have had immediate and lasting impact in Africa and beyond, with its high case fatality and societal disruption. Its rapid spread, coupled with the limited knowledge, serves as a recipe for disaster and panic in the community. Health workers are particularly at risk, paying heavily with their lives. Sharing knowledge from various experts in basic sciences that support vaccine and drug development, as well as improving community surveillance and case management, enriches our understanding of this highly fatal and contagious disease. In a world that is fast becoming a global village, communicable diseases from low-resource setting are gradually becoming a global health threat. This book seeks to discuss emerging advances in the Ebola control.

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