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Subjects Biology and Life Sciences Biology

Anatomy (11 books)
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Microbiology (238 books)
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"Ob Dir es sauer wird mit Deiner Nahrung und Ackerwerk, das laß Dich nicht verdrießen, denn Gott hat es also geschaffen" - Gottfreid Dietrich Wilhelm Berthold (1854 - 1937) Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Biologie an der Georgia Augusta Göttingen

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ISBN: 9783863950224 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.17875/gup2012-698 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Education --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Gottfried Dietrich Wilhelm Berthold (1854-1937) was one the foremost botanists and phycologists at the end of the 19th century. Born and educated in Westphalia, he enrolled at the Georgia Augusta to study plant sciences and focused on algae. After research stays at the Zoological Station at Naples he succeeded his mentor Johannes Reinke on his chair at the Institute of Plant Physiology at the Georgia Augusta Göttingen until 1923. In this study we focus on the biography of Berthold, his private and scientific life, interaction with J. Reinke and other topics related to the life of Berthold. In a second part we highlight his research on algae at the Gulf of Naples. We conclude with an evaluation of his scientific work in the light of the different phases in his life including a full bibliography of his scientific publications. Our study contributes to history of science at the Georgia Augusta.

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Book title: Negotiating bioethics

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ISBN: 9780203101797 Year: Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 075315
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04

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The sequencing of the entire human genome has opened up unprecedented possibilities for healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas about how these can be achieved, particularly in developing countries. UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established to address such issues in 1993. Since then, it has adopted three declarations on human genetics and bioethics (1997, 2003 and 2005), set up numerous training programmes around the world and debated the need for an international convention on human reproductive cloning. Negotiating Bioethics presents Langlois' research on the negotiation and implementation of the three declarations and the human cloning debate, based on fieldwork carried out in Kenya, South Africa, France and the UK, among policy-makers, geneticists, ethicists, civil society representatives and industry professionals. The book examines whether the UNESCO Bioethics Programme is an effective forum for (a) decision-making on bioethics issues and (b) ensuring ethical practice. Considering two different aspects of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme - deliberation and implementation - at international and national levels, Langlois explores: - how relations between developed and developing countries can be made more equal - who should be involved in global level decision-making and how this should proceed - how overlap between initiatives can be avoided - what can be done to improve the implementation of international norms by sovereign states - how far universal norms can be contextualized - what impact the efficacy of national level governance has at international level Drawing on extensive empirical research, Negotiating Bioethics presents a truly global perspective on bioethics

Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops

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ISBN: 9783039217502/9783039217519 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 126 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-05 10:43:33
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Horticultural crop yield and quality depend on genotype, environmental conditions, and production management. In particular, adverse environmental conditions may greatly affect crop performance, reducing crop yield by 50%–70%. Abiotic stresses such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and ultraviolet radiation affect multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms in plants as they attempt to cope with the stress conditions. However, different crop species can have different sensitivities or tolerances to specific abiotic stresses. Tolerant plants may activate different strategies to adapt to or avoid the negative effect of abiotic stresses. At the physiological level, photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency of plants may be modulated to enhance tolerance against the stress. At the biochemical level, several antioxidant systems may be activated, and many enzymes may produce stress-related metabolites to help avoid cellular damage, including compounds such as proline, glycine betaine, and amino acids. Within each crop species there is a wide variability of tolerance to abiotic stresses, and some wild relatives may carry useful traits for enhancing the tolerance to abiotic stresses in their progeny through either traditional or biotechnological breeding. The research papers and reviews presented in this book provide an update of the scientific knowledge of crop interactions with abiotic stresses.

Acknowledgements (Book chapter)

Book title: Negotiating bioethics

Authors:
ISBN: 9780203101797 Year: Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 075315
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04

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Abstract

The sequencing of the entire human genome has opened up unprecedented possibilities for healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas about how these can be achieved, particularly in developing countries. UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established to address such issues in 1993. Since then, it has adopted three declarations on human genetics and bioethics (1997, 2003 and 2005), set up numerous training programmes around the world and debated the need for an international convention on human reproductive cloning. Negotiating Bioethics presents Langlois' research on the negotiation and implementation of the three declarations and the human cloning debate, based on fieldwork carried out in Kenya, South Africa, France and the UK, among policy-makers, geneticists, ethicists, civil society representatives and industry professionals. The book examines whether the UNESCO Bioethics Programme is an effective forum for (a) decision-making on bioethics issues and (b) ensuring ethical practice. Considering two different aspects of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme - deliberation and implementation - at international and national levels, Langlois explores: - how relations between developed and developing countries can be made more equal - who should be involved in global level decision-making and how this should proceed - how overlap between initiatives can be avoided - what can be done to improve the implementation of international norms by sovereign states - how far universal norms can be contextualized - what impact the efficacy of national level governance has at international level Drawing on extensive empirical research, Negotiating Bioethics presents a truly global perspective on bioethics

Adenosine Triphosphate in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Physiology ISSN: 26318261 ISBN: 9781838802035 9781838802042 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 84 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73455 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book covers a very important research field; specifically, it tries to decrease the gap between theoretical and clinical research. The tendency of world research is to gain a detailed insight into the living organs of animals and humans. However, we must not lose sight of the problems that these organs can present; for example, we need to understand their molecular and biochemical mechanisms, as well as new drug productions to counteract diseases. Very deep mechanisms can offer new therapeutic pathways in hematology and oncology, among other fields. However, at least 8-l0 years of further clinical studies are necessary to make a final decision regarding the real clinical importance of basic research. Ideally, an interdisciplinary efforts among basic and clinical researchers are necessary in common research fields. At the same time, genetic research is increasing dramatically (e.g. enzyme mutations). The primary aim of this book is to demonstrate how such research can be used in both fields. This book gathers knowledge from experts in basic and clinical science, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, genetics, and other fields.

Adrenal Cortex: From Physiology to Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199198 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-919-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The adrenal gland plays essential roles in the control of body homeostasis, stress and immune responses. The adrenal cortex represents up to 90% of the gland and is specialised in the production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. This production is tightly coordinated and results from a unique zonal organisation. Although our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling adrenal steroidogenesis is quite extensive, for decades, the mechanisms of adrenal cortex development, cellular homeostasis and renewal have remained elusive. The advent of new high-throughput technologies and sophisticated genetic approaches has brought tremendous progress in our understanding of how the adrenal cortex achieves and maintains its particular organisation. The aim of this Frontiers in Endocrinology Topic is to provide readers with a snapshot of our current knowledge on adrenal physiology and how deregulations of these processes result in adrenal diseases. This includes but is not limited to, basic research on adrenal development, cell lineage identification, progenitor cells, tissue renewal, control of differentiation and zonation and clinical research on the identification of disease-related genes.

Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed—typically under mild conditions—into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption—to name but a few—chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

Advances in Flavivirus Research

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ISBN: 9783038424864 9783038424871 Year: Pages: VI, 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-487-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:14:10
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The flaviviruses are composed almost entirely of arthropod-borne viruses, a subset of which are responsible for millions of cases of human disease each year. Among these viruses are dengue virus—a scourge throughout the tropical regions of Asia and the Americas; yellow fever virus—the “original” hemorrhagic fever virus; and the recently emerged Zika virus. While the flaviviruses are related genetically, in their structure and in their replication processes, the dissimilarity of diseases caused by the flaviviruses is remarkable. In this Special Issue, primary research articles and reviews discuss topics ranging from broadly applicable questions of nuclear translocation of viral proteins to virus-specific envelope protein epitopes that may be associated with virus attenuation. Also included in this issue are articles discussing findings with less well known flaviviruses including pegivirus and Duck Tembusu virus. The latter provides a reminder that the flaviviruses not only impact humans, but other species as well.

Advances in Lipoprotein Research

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ISBN: 9789535130475 9789535130482 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/64122 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Lipoproteins have key roles in human growth and development, along with promoting, preventing, and/or participating in the pathogenesis or in the treatment of various diseases. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive review about the structure and metabolism of lipoproteins, particularly highlighting the crucial role of those molecules in the body and considering the interest of some lipids in healthy and diseased conditions. This book aims to provide integrative approach to understand the lipoprotein metabolism. Distinguished international experts contributed six chapters about the genetic variations, plasma lipoprotein components, and molecular relationship of lipoproteins with cognition and obesity.

Advances in Neuroimmunology

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ISBN: 9783038425700 9783038425717 Year: Pages: X, 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-571-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:41:40
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Neuroimmunity is a relative new and rapidly expanding area of interest that critically impacts normal brain function and a wide range of neurological disorders. Neuroimmune mechanisms operate within the nervous system and between the nervous system and periphery. Glial cells of the nervous system play a primary role in neuroimmunity, through their ability to produce and respond to neuroimmune signaling factors, which serve a number of functions, such as homeostatic regulation of nervous system function and defense against insult and infection. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is now thought to be an important contributing factor to many disease and injury states. The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a representative view of current research in this growing field, with an emphasis on the central nervous system.

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