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Advanced Gas Chromatography - Progress in Agricultural, Biomedical and Industrial Applications

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ISBN: 9789535102984 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.5772/2518 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Progress in agricultural, biomedical and industrial applications' is a compilation of recent advances and developments in gas chromatography and its applications. The chapters cover various aspects of applications ranging from basic biological, biomedical applications to industrial applications. Book chapters analyze new developments in chromatographic columns, microextraction techniques, derivatisation techniques and pyrolysis techniques. The book also includes several aspects of basic chromatography techniques and is suitable for both young and advanced chromatographers. It includes some new developments in chromatography such as multidimensional chromatography, inverse chromatography and some discussions on two-dimensional chromatography. The topics covered include analysis of volatiles, toxicants, indoor air, petroleum hydrocarbons, organometallic compounds and natural products. The chapters were written by experts from various fields and clearly assisted by simple diagrams and tables. This book is highly recommended for chemists as well as non-chemists working in gas chromatography.

Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Related Computational Methods

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ISBN: 9783039280520 9783039280537 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-053-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In the last few decades, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has distinguished itself as one of the most rapidly advancing spectroscopic techniques. Mainly known as an analytical tool useful for sample characterization and content quantification, NIR spectroscopy is essential in various other fields, e.g. NIR imaging techniques in biophotonics, medical applications or used for characterization of food products. Its contribution in basic science and physical chemistry should be noted as well, e.g. in exploration of the nature of molecular vibrations or intermolecular interactions. One of the current development trends involves the miniaturization and simplification of instrumentation, creating prospects for the spread of NIR spectrometers at a consumer level in the form of smartphone attachments—a breakthrough not yet accomplished by any other analytical technique. A growing diversity in the related methods and applications has led to a dispersion of these contributions among disparate scientific communities. The aim of this Special Issue was to bring together the communities that may perceive NIR spectroscopy from different perspectives. It resulted in 30 contributions presenting the latest advances in the methodologies essential in near-infrared spectroscopy in a variety of applications.

Keywords

hyperspectral imaging --- variety discrimination --- Chrysanthemum --- deep convolutional neural network --- DNA --- FTIR spectroscopy --- rapid identification --- PLS-DA --- animal origin --- near-infrared hyperspectral imaging --- raisins --- support vector machine --- pixel-wise --- object-wise --- maize kernel --- hyperspectral imaging technology --- accelerated aging --- principal component analysis --- support vector machine model --- standard germination tests --- blackberries --- Rubus fructicosus --- phenolics --- carotenoids --- bioanalytical applications --- near infrared --- chemometrics --- VIS/NIR hyperspectral imaging --- corn seed --- classification --- freeze-damaged --- image processing --- imaging visualization --- wavelength selection --- NIR spectroscopy --- binary dragonfly algorithm --- ensemble learning --- quantitative analysis modeling --- NIR --- SCiO --- pocket-sized spectrometer --- cheese --- fat --- moisture --- multivariate data analysis --- Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy --- glucose --- fructose --- dry matter --- partial least square regression --- Ewing sarcoma --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- FTIR --- chemotherapy --- bone cancer --- calibration transfer --- NIR spectroscopy --- PLS --- quantitative analysis model --- melamine --- FT-IR --- NIR spectroscopy --- quantum chemical calculation --- anharmonic calculation --- overtones --- combination bands --- near infrared spectroscopy --- Trichosanthis Fructus --- geographical origin --- chemometric techniques --- crude drugs --- prepared slices --- support vector machine-discriminant analysis --- near-infrared fluorescence --- fluorescent probes --- Zn(II) --- di-(2-picolyl)amine --- living cells --- cellular imaging --- near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy --- calibration transfer --- affine invariance --- multivariate calibration --- partial least squares (PLS) --- NIR --- direct model transferability --- MicroNIR™ --- SVM --- hier-SVM --- SIMCA --- PLS-DA --- TreeBagger --- PLS --- calibration transfer --- agriculture --- photonics --- imaging --- spectral imaging --- spectroscopy --- handheld near-infrared spectroscopy --- pasta/sauce blends --- partial least squares calibration --- nutritional parameters --- bootstrapping soft shrinkage --- partial least squares --- extra virgin olive oil --- adulteration --- FT-NIR spectroscopy --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- ethanol --- anharmonic quantum mechanical calculations --- isotopic substitution --- overtones --- combinations bands --- seeds vitality --- rice seeds --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- hyperspectral image --- discriminant analysis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- counter propagation artificial neural network --- detection --- auxiliary diagnosis --- BRAF V600E mutation --- colorectal cancer --- tissue --- paraffin-embedded --- deparaffinized --- stained --- ultra-high performance liquid chromatography --- Folin–Ciocalteu --- total hydroxycinnamic derivatives --- phytoextraction --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- origin traceability --- data fusion --- Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis --- Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- aquaphotomics --- water --- light --- near infrared spectroscopy --- water-mirror approach --- perturbation --- biomeasurements --- biodiagnosis --- biomonitoring --- Vitis vinifera L. --- proximal sensing --- precision viticulture --- near infrared --- chemometrics --- non-destructive sensor --- NIRS --- osteopathy --- late preterm --- brain --- splanchnic --- Raman spectroscopy --- hyperspectral imaging --- analytical spectroscopy --- counterfeit and substandard pharmaceuticals --- DFT calculations --- chemometrics --- PLSR --- API --- lumefantrine --- artemether --- antimalarial tablets --- FT-NIR spectroscopy --- PLS-R --- water --- glucose --- test set validation --- RMSEP --- hyperspectral image processing --- perfusion measurements --- clinical classifications --- n/a

Advances in Titration Techniques

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ISBN: 9789535135234 9789535135241 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.5772/66980 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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In chemistry, titration (a.k.a. titrimetry) is a common laboratory technique used for the determination of the unknown concentration of an analyte. Because of its versatility, the application of various forms of titration can affect nearly all aspects of society. This book is specifically aimed at broadening and deepening the theory and applications of titration. It contains six chapters being organized into three main sections: Volumetric Titration, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, and Titrimetric Principles in Electrolytic Systems. Each chapter has been well written by internationally renowned experts in the field of chemistry, with mathematical expressions and illustrative examples selectively and logically presented. It is highly recommended for postgraduate students and scientists alike.

Analytical Pyrolysis

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ISBN: 9781789849585 9781789849592 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75893 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Analytical pyrolysis deals with the structural identification and quantitation of pyrolysis products with the ultimate aim of establishing the identity of the original material and the mechanisms of its thermal decomposition. The pyrolytic process is carried out in a pyrolyzer interfaced with analytical instrumentation such as gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), or with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FTIR). By measurement and identification of pyrolysis products, the molecular composition of the original sample can often be reconstructed.This book is the outcome of contributions by experts in the field of pyrolysis and includes applications of the analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS to characterize the structure of synthetic organic polymers and lignocellulosic materials as well as cellulosic pulps and isolated lignins, solid wood, waste particle board, and bio-oil. The thermal degradation of cellulose and biomass is examined by scanning electron micrography, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis, and TG/MS. The calorimetric determination of high heating values of different raw biomass, plastic waste, and biomass/plastic waste mixtures and their by-products resulting from pyrolysis is described.

Applications of the Voltammetry

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ISBN: 9789535132158 9789535132165 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/65154 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The present book Applications of Voltammetry is a collection of six chapters, organized in two sections. The first book section is dedicated to the application of mathematical methods, such as multivariate calibration coupled with voltammetric data and numeric simulation to solve quantitative electroanalytical problems. The second book section is devoted to the electron transfer kinetic studies and electroanalytical applications of the voltammetry, such as interfacial electron transfer of the haem group in human haemoglobin molecules, physisorbed on glass-/tin-doped indium oxide substrates, analysis of dyes and metal ions in trace concentrations and characterization of the antioxidant properties of wine and wine products, using a variety of voltammetric techniques and electrodes. The most recent trends and advances in voltammetry are professionally commented.

Atomic-force Microscopy and Its Applications

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781789851694 9781789851700 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74139 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Atomic force microscopy is a surface analytical technique used in air, liquids or a vacuum to generate very high-resolution topographic images of a surface, down to atomic resolution. This book is not only for students but also for professional engineers who are working in the industry as well as specialists. This book aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the new trends, research results and development of atomic force microscopy. The chapters for this book have been written by respected and well-known researchers and specialists from different countries. We hope that after studying this book, you will have objective knowledge about the possible uses of atomic force microscopy in many scientific aspects of our civilisation.

Calibration and Validation of Analytical Methods - A Sampling of Current Approaches

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ISBN: 9781789230840 9781789230857 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69918 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book seeks to introduce the reader to current methodologies in analytical calibration and validation. This collection of contributed research articles and reviews addresses current developments in the calibration of analytical methods and techniques and their subsequent validation. Section 1, ""Introduction,"" contains the Introductory Chapter, a broad overview of analytical calibration and validation, and a brief synopsis of the following chapters. Section 2 ""Calibration Approaches"" presents five chapters covering calibration schemes for some modern analytical methods and techniques. The last chapter in this section provides a segue into Section 3, ""Validation Approaches,"" which contains two chapters on validation procedures and parameters. This book is a valuable source of scientific information for anyone interested in analytical calibration and validation.

Calorimetry - Design, Theory and Applications in Porous Solids

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ISBN: 9781789234381 9781789234398 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68244 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Today, calorimetry is considered an art (although some consider it a tool) that studies the energy changes that occur during a change of state. This allows physicochemical analysis to study in detail the thermodynamic systems and to evaluate the different variables that establish the characteristics of the system itself. This book illustrates how the reader can use this technique in a wide spectrum of applications.

Chemical/Instrumental Approaches to the Evaluation of Wine Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783039287345 / 9783039287352 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-735-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Wine is a widely consumed beverage due to its unique and pleasant sensory properties. Wine is composed of more than one thousand chemical compounds (e.g., alcohols, esters, acids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, minerals, and vitamins, among others) resulting from several chemical and biochemical processes. Microextraction techniques in tandem with high-resolution analytical instruments have been applied by wine researchers to expand the knowledge of wine’s chemical composition with the purposes of improving wine quality, supporting winemaker decisions related to the winemaking process, and guaranteeing the authenticity of wine. As a result, we proposed “Chemical/Instrumental Approaches to the Evaluation of Wine Chemistry” as a topic for a Special Issue in Molecules. This Special Issue aims to provide an update on state-of-the-art extraction procedures (e.g., solid-phase microextraction (SPME)) and analytical tools (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)), emphasizing their use as suitable platforms for the establishment of the chemical composition of wine (volatomic profile, antioxidants, phenolic pattern, and elemental composition, among others). Information related to wine sensorial properties, contaminants, authenticity, and chemometric tools used for data treatment are described in this Issue.

Crystal Dislocations: Their Impact on Physical Properties of Crystals

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ISBN: 9783038974659 9783038974666 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-466-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 12:11:05
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The proposed existence of the edge and screw dislocation in the 1930s, and the subsequent work showing that dislocation theory could explain the plastic deformation of crystals, represent an important step in developing our understanding of materials into a science. The continued work involved with characterization of dislocations and linking them to a variety of physical properties in both single and poly crystals have made enormous progress over the past 50 years. It is rare to find a technical application involving a material with any crystal structure that is not impacted by dislocations; mechanical properties, massive phase transformations, interphases, crystal growth, electronic properties, the list goes on. In many systems the properties is controlled by the formation of partial dislocations separated by a stacking fault; for example plastic deformation via deformation twinning. And finally, giant strides have been made in characterization and modeling of systems containing dislocations. The Special Issue on “Crystal Dislocations” is intended to provide a unique international forum aimed at covering a broad range of results involving dislocations and their importance on crystal properties and crystal growth. Scientists working in a wide range of disciplines are invited to contribute to this cause. Dr. K. Peter D. Lagerlof, Associate Professor of Ceramics Guest Editor

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