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3D Printing of Metals

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ISBN: 9783038425915 9783038425922 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-592-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:54:59
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Three-dimensional printing is a futuristic technology capable of transforming the ways in which we make components and devices. It is almost certain that this technique will find its niche in the manufacturing sector in the very near future. In view of the growing importance of 3D printing, this book addresses key issues related to emerging science and technology in this area. Detailed and informative articles are presented in relation to a wide variety of materials, including those based on critical engineering metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium and composites. Advances in various techniques, such as electron beam melting and selective laser melting are discussed. Of key importance in the area of materials science is the end properties of the materials following processing. Accordingly, the articles presented critically discuss the effects of microstructural features such as porosity, forming defects and the heat treatment induced effects on the mechanical properties. Applications covered in these articles are targeted at the aerospace, automobile, defense and aerospace sectors. Overall, the information presented in this book is of significant importance for academic and industrial-based researchers who wish to inform themselves regarding this upcoming highly promising manufacturing technique.

Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Cell Scaffolds

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ISBN: 9783038970330 9783038970347 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-034-7 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:51:22
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Since Langer’s seminal work, polymers have been on every corner of tissue engineering. The roles of bioresorbable polymers, as a scaffold, are not merely structural, providing three-dimensional (3D) homing sites to cells, but also functional at their interface with the cells. The polymeric scaffolds actively act as both biochemical and physical cues for cell behaviors, such as adhesion, growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Polymers and cells could interact further with each other mutually, sensing and responding to the signals from the partner. Technological advances in this direction, including chemical modification of polymer scaffolds, highly cytocompatible hybrid materials/composites, dynamic scaffolds, control of juxtacrine interactions, and 3D bioprinting and microfluidic devices, ensure the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds. The detection and characterization methods for cell-material interactions and cell behaviors have been greatly improved, and new characterization techniques have emerged. Recent years have witnessed a quantum leap of progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and this edited book illustrates some of the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds.

Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials

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ISBN: 9783038427490 9783038427506 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-750-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:26:33
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This Special Issue "Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials" contains some of the latest developments in the field of small-scale contact mechanics for a wide range of materials and biological cells. The featured manuscript revealed a new ultra-high strain rate nanoindentation method that will enable new scientific understanding of time-dependent material properties. The book also presents unique material properties of super alloys and other structural materials characterized by indentation methods. In addition to engineering materials, deformation behaviors of live cancer cells on sharp pillar structures were discussed in this book with the hope to stimulate interest in the mechanical contact behaviors of biological cells.

Advances and Applications of Nano-antimicrobial Treatments

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ISBN: 9783038423805 9783038423812 Year: Pages: 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-13 12:58:27
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Nowadays, great concerns are associated with the resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards the conventional antibiotic therapies. The failure of traditional antimicrobials, and the increasing healthcare costs, have encouraged scientific research and the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Particularly, there is a great deal of interest in nanotechnologies and in antibacterial products obtained through the incorporation of antibacterial agents or the deposition of antibacterial coatings for prevention of biofilm-associated infections. The main focus of the forthcoming Special Issue is, therefore, to present the most recent efforts in scientific research in the development of advanced antimicrobial materials, with special attention to nature-inspired antimicrobial agents and antimicrobials nanomaterials and nanocoatings. For this purpose, we intend to collect original research articles and reviews on the synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial agents, as well as on the development of antimicrobial products for different applications.

Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018

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ISBN: 9783038975236 / 9783038975243 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-524-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biochemistry --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 11:00:27
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Anthocyanins are natural plant pigments, responsible for many of the orange/red/purple/blue colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. These colorants play important roles in plants, such as conferring UV protection and antimicrobial properties, and they are also implicated to have many potential human health-promoting properties. Research works and epidemiological studies have indicated these plant pigments to be beneficial in the reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, there is increasing interest in their incorporation in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and dietary supplements as naturally derived colorants and health-promoting compounds. There is a large natural diversity in the chemical composition of anthocyanin pigments. More than 700 unique anthocyanin structures have been identified, and each has unique colorimetric, reactivity, and health-promoting properties. With such a great number of unique anthocyanins and increasing interest in their use, there is a considerable need to better understand the factors affecting their production and accumulation in plants, the factors affecting their stability and colorimetric properties, and their metabolism and mechanisms for disease alleviation. This Special Issue includes several new research works dedicated to these topics and a review of the current knowledge of anthocyanin chemistry affecting their application in food and nutrition.

Advances in Computer Simulation Studies on Crystal Growth

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ISBN: 9783038973560 9783038973577 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-357-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 11:51:21
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Crystals are indispensable in technology, nature, and our daily lives. For example, cooking uses many kinds of crystallized products, such as salt, sugar, and fat crystals; electronic devices contain semiconductor crystals; living organisms produce mineral crystals to maintain biological processes; and snow and ice crystals play a crucial role in climate change. For these and other topics related to crystals, an especially important area of research is crystal growth. Computer simulations of crystal growth have become increasingly important as a result of rapid increases in available computing power. Computer simulations can analyze and predict various aspects of crystal growth, including molecular-scale growth and nucleation mechanisms, the structure and dynamics of surfaces and interfaces, and pattern formation. This book presents state-of-the-art research and reviews of computer simulation studies on crystal growth for hard-sphere particles, organic molecules, ice, and functional materials. The studies use a variety of simulation methodologies, including molecular simulations, first-principles simulations, continuum simulations, and multiscale simulations. This book will interest graduate students and researchers in crystal growth science and technology and will provide a helpful reference for scientists who want to familiarize themselves with computer simulations of crystal growth.

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017

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ISBN: 9783038426776 9783038426783 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-678-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:37:31
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As a result of our call in 2014 for submissions to a Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are now pleased to tell you that this issue has been published. Twenty high class papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition we now seek to publish a further Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017, in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

Advances in Organic Conductors and Superconductors

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ISBN: 9783038971801 9783038971818 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-181-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-04 12:13:06
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms. Crystalline conductors and superconductors based on organic molecules are a rapidly progressing field of solid-state science, comprising chemists, and experimental and theoretical physicists from all around the world. In focus are solids with electronic properties governed by delocalized π-electrons. Although carbon-based materials of various shades have gained enormous interest in recent years, charge transfer salts are still paradigmatic in this field. Progress in molecular design is achieved via tiny but ingenious modifications, as well as by fundamentally different approaches. The wealth of exciting physical phenomena is unprecedented and could not have been imagined when the field took off almost half a century ago. Organic low-dimensional conductors are prime examples of Luttinger liquids, exhibit a tendency toward Fermi surface instabilities, but can also be tuned across a dimension¬a¬lity-driven phase diagram like no other system. Superconductivity comes at the border to ordered phases in the spin and charge sectors, and, at high fields, the Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state is well established. The interplay between charge and magnetic order is still under debate, but electronic ferroelectricity is well established. After decades of intense search, the spin liquid state was first discovered in organic conductors when the amount of geometrical frustration and electronic correlations is just right. They drive the metal and superconductor into an insulating Mott state, solely via electron–electron interactions. However, what do we know about the effect of disorder? Can we tune the electronic properties by pressure, by light, or by field? Research is still addressing basic questions, but devices are not out of reach. These are currently open questions, as well as hot and timely topics. The present Special Issue on “Advances in Organic Conductors and Superconductors” provides a status report summarizing the progress achieved in the last five years.

Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals

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ISBN: 9783038972600 9783038972617 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-261-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 11:39:39
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The forming of metals through plastic deformation comprises a family of methods that produce components through the re-shaping of input stock, oftentimes with little waste. Therefore, forming is one of the most efficient and economical manufacturing process families available. A myriad of forming processes exist in this family. In conjunction with their countless existing successful applications and their relatively low energy requirements, these processes are an indispensable part of our future. However, despite the vast accumulated know-how, research challenges remain, be they related to the forming of new materials (e.g., for light-weight transportation applications), pushing the boundaries of what is doable, reducing the intermediate steps and/or scrap, or further enhancing the environmental friendliness. The purpose of this book is to collect expert views and contributions on the current state-of-the-art of plastic forming, thus highlighting contemporary challenges and offering ideas and solutions.

Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

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ISBN: 9783038428398 9783038428404 Year: Pages: VI, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 14:36:36
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Air quality is personal. Its management is highly so. Asthmatic or air-pollutant-sensitive individuals depend on accurate air quality forecasts to help manage their daily activities. However, the adverse effects of poor air quality on public health and visibility extend far beyond the daily time horizon. Pneumonic and cardiac vascular responses of individuals in all age groups can be both acute, episodic and short-term, as well as chronic, accumulative and long-term. Urban haze resulting from stagnant poor air can linger for many days. In this Special Issue, seven papers cover a wide range of air pollution forecasting technology and emission control responses. It is paramount to verify and improve air quality forecast modeling systems constantly by as many quality-assured and cross-calibrated measurements as possible. Improvements from national centers such as the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) research arms must produce verification statistics satisfying operational center performance metrics over multiple seasons before implementation is possible. High quality, compact, and mobile monitors are a significant player in air quality and atmospheric composition continuous measurements and are poised to become even more important. Five papers in this issue provide insight on observation technological advances and data assimilation. Air quality monitoring and forecasting sciences necessarily advance in lock-step and improvements for one benefit the other.

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