Subjects Physics and Astronomy Physics (General) | |
Acoustics (2 books) Electricity (1 books) Heat (2 books) |
Mechanics (1 books) Nuclear Physics (7 books) Optics and Lights (1 books) |
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Der Band enthält die Rechenschaftsberichte des Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics der ETH Zürich für das Jahr 2016. Zahlreiche Ergebnisse und der neueste Stand der Wissenschaft für Ionenphysik werden kurz vorgestellt. Diese Jahresberichte werden bei LIBRUM geführt, weil sie auch für die neuesten Erkenntnisse der 14C-Datierungsmethoden relevant sind und insofern auch für die Archäologie neue und wesentliche Erkenntnisse vermitteln. The Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) is a leading research center for the development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and a world-class laboratory for the application of Ion Beam Physics in a wide range of fields. It can rely on a broad funding base and can thus serve a large user community from many highly current disciplines. LIP acts as a national competence center for ion beam applications. This annual report is a brief summary of the accomplished achievements. It covers the wide range of fields from fundamental research, over operational issues of the laboratory, to the vast variety of exciting applications of our measurement technologies. Naturally, the publications listed in the appendix of this report will provide a much deeper insight into our research.
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In 1692, Newton wrote: "That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action or force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters any competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws, but whether this agent be material or immaterial is a question I have left to the consideration of my readers". One of them who, just over 200 years later, picked up the baton of Newton was Albert Einstein. His General Theory of Relativity, which had its centenary in 2015, opened up new windows on our comprehension of Nature, disclosed new, previously unpredictable, phenomena occurring when relative velocities dramatically change in intense gravitational fields reaching values close to the speed of light and, for the first time after millennia of speculations, put Cosmology on the firm grounds of empirically testable science. This Special Issue was dedicated to this grand achievement of the human thought.
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The book is a compilation of the most important experimental results achieved during the past 60 years at CERN - from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. Covering the results from the early accelerators at CERN to those most recent at the LHC, the contents provide an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. Not only presented is the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades, but also demonstrated is the special way in which successful international collaboration exists at CERN. Contents: Foreword (R-D Heuer) Preface (L Di Lella and H Schopper) The Discovery of the Higgs Boson at the LHC (P Jenni and T S Virdee) Precision Physics with Heavy-Flavoured Hadrons (P Koppenburg and V Vagnoni) Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN (J Schukraft and R Stock) The Measurement of the Number of Light Neutrino Species at LEP (S Mele) Precision Experiments at LEP (W de Boer) The Discovery of the W and Z Particles (L Di Lella and C Rubbia) The Discovery of Weak Neutral Currents (D Haidt) Highlights from High Energy Neutrino Experiments at CERN (W-D Schlatter) The Discovery of Direct CP Violation (L Iconomidou-Fayard and D Fournier) Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment (T Ruf) An ISR Discovery: The Rise of the Proton–Proton Cross-Section (U Amaldi) Deep Inelastic Scattering with the SPS Muon Beam (G K Mallot and R Voss) Revealing Partons in Hadrons: From the ISR to the SPS Collider (P Darriulat and L Di Lella) Properties of Antiprotons and Antihydrogen, and the Study of Exotic Atoms (M Doser) Muon g–2 and Tests of Relativity (F J M Farley) The Discoveries of Rare Pion Decays at the CERN Synchrocyclotron (G Fidecaro) Highlights at ISOLDE (K Blaum, M J G Borge, B Jonson and P Van Duppen) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, and historians of science.
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The present Special Issue intends to explore new directions in the field of acoustics and ultrasonics. The interest includes, but is not limited to, the use of acoustic technology for condition monitoring of materials and structures. Topics of interest (among others): • Acoustic emission in materials and structures (without material limitation) • Innovative cases of ultrasonic inspection • Wave dispersion and waveguides • Monitoring of innovative materials • Seismic waves • Vibrations, damping and noise control • Combination of mechanical wave techniques with other types for structural health monitoring purposes. Experimental and numerical studies are welcome.
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This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory. The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle. This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an “arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author’s earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.
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With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field. In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.
elementary particles --- quantum field theory --- string theory
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This Special Issue "Differential Geometrical Theory of Statistics" collates selected invited and contributed talks presented during the conference GSI'15 on "Geometric Science of Information" which was held at the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Saclay Campus, France, in October 2015 (Conference web site: http://www.see.asso.fr/gsi2015).
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The textbook begins with exercises related to radioactive sources and decay schemes. The problems covered include series decay and how to determine the frequency and energy of emitted particles in disintegrations. The next chapter deals with the interaction of ionizing radiation, including the treatment of photons and charged particles. The main focus is on applications based on the knowledge of interaction, to be used in subsequent work and courses. The textbook then examines detectors and measurements, including both counting statistics and properties of pulse detectors. The chapter that follows is dedicated to dosimetry, which is a major subject in medical radiation physics. It covers theoretical applications, such as different equilibrium situations and cavity theories, as well as experimental dosimetry, including ionization chambers and solid state and liquid dosimeters. A shorter chapter deals with radiobiology, where different cell survival models are considered. The last chapter concerns radiation protection and health physics. Both radioecology and radiation shielding calculations are covered. The textbook includes tables to simplify the solutions of the exercises, but the reader is mainly referred to important websites for importing necessary data.
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Fluid flow in transforming porous rocks, fracture networks, and granular media is a very active interdisciplinary research subject in Physics, Earth Sciences, and Engineering. Examples of natural and engineered processes include hydrocarbon recovery, carbon dioxide geo-sequestration, soil drying and wetting, pollution remediation, soil liquefaction, landslides, dynamics of wet or dry granular media, dynamics of faulting or friction, volcanic eruptions, gas venting in sediments, karst development and speleogenesis, ore deposit development, and radioactive waste disposal. Hydrodynamic flow instabilities and pore scale disorder typically result in complex flow patterning. In transforming media, additional mechanisms come into play: compaction, de-compaction, erosion, segregation, and fracturing lead to changes in permeability over time. Dissolution, precipitation, and chemical reactions between solutes and solids may gradually alter the composition and structure of the solid matrix, either creating or destroying permeable paths for fluid flow. A complex, dynamic feedback thus arises where, on the one hand, the fluid flow affects the characteristics of the porous medium, and on the other hand the changing medium influences the fluid flow. This Research Topic Ebook presents current research illustrating the depth and breadth of ongoing work in the field of flow and transformation in porous media through 15 papers by 72 authors from around the world. The body of work highlights the challenges posed by the vast range of length- and time-scales over which subsurface flow processes occur. Importantly, phenomena from each scale contribute to the larger-scale behavior. The flow of oil and gas in reservoirs, and the flow of groundwater on catchment scale is sensitively linked to pore scale processes and material heterogeneity down to the micrometer scale. The geological features of the same reservoirs and catchments evolved over millions of years, sometimes as a consequence of cracking and fracture growth occurring on the time scale of microseconds. The research presented by the authors of this Research Topic represents a step toward bridging the separation of scales as well as the separation of scientific disciplines so that a more unified picture of flow and transformation in porous media can start to emerge.
fluid --- Porous media --- fractures --- rocks --- dissolution --- precipitation --- stress --- granular media --- Friction --- transport
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.
Quantum physics --- Mathematical physics --- Matrix theory --- Algebra
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