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Aortic Aneurysm

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ISBN: 9789535129332 9789535129349 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/62928 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Aortic aneurysms are very silent, insidious, and sudden complicated pathologies with high incidence of sudden death. The aorta has several different parts, which are affected by aneurysmal pathology independently and separately or conjointly. Preventive medicine and determinative genetic heritage are the first steps during diagnosis and precaution. Preventive screening of the general population seems the best way for diagnosing early asymptomatic aneurysms with increased health cost. Because sudden death is the first symptom of aortic aneurysms, early interventional treatment is essential to protect fatal complications. In spite of open surgical repair which is the standard procedure, isolated or hybrid endovascular approaches are used widespread in the last decade due to reduction of procedural complications. This book is composed of the main topics on aortic aneurysms and surgical treatments to extend scientific and therapeutic perspective and vision of cardiac teams.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Developmental Trajectories, Neurobiological Basis, Treatment Update

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452668 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-266-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Pediatrics --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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This Research Topic has the aim to fill the gap of the many unresolved scientific issues on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) that are still in need of investigation, Targeted treatments based on the understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of disease are still lacking. Further research is awaited and should be obtained through a significant effort on experimental treatment trials and neuroscience research. This Topic is divided in two main sections, one covering clinical issues and another on basic neurosciences of Autism Spectrum Disorders. A more detailed description of the contents of the articles is provided in the editorial at the beginning of the issue.

Contemporary Challenges in Endocarditis

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ISBN: 9789535127697 9789535127703 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/62550 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Endocarditis remains an elusive challenge for clinicians to master. As the population ages and their comorbidities increase, the risk of infecting cardiac structures - both native and, the ever-increasing use of, prosthetic support technology - also increases. In addition, the global epidemic of intravenous substance abuse has also resulted in a substantial increase in the number of infected patients. Fortunately, advances in the diagnostic testing, imaging, and recognition of the importance of a multidisciplinary management team have also contributed to advances in the care of these critically ill patients. Nevertheless, optimal therapies need to be individualized and considered in the ever-increasing body of scientific literature on this complex and difficult problem.

Etiology and Morphogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease: From Gene Function and Cellular Interaction to Morphology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9784431546276 9784431546283 Year: Pages: 383 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54628-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pediatrics --- Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-30 17:36:58
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This volume focuses on the etiology and morphogenesis of congenital heart diseases. It reviews in detail the early development and differentiation of the heart, and later morphologic events of the cardiovascular system, covering a wide range of topics such as gene functions, growth factors, transcription factors and cellular interactions that are implicated in cardiac morphogenesis and congenital heart disease. This book also presents recent advances in stem cell and cell sheet tissue engineering technologies which have the potential to provide novel in vitro disease models and to generate regenerative paradigms for cardiac repair and regeneration. This is the ideal resource for physician scientists and investigators looking for updates on recent investigations on the origins of congenital heart disease and potential future therapies.

Keywords

Cardiology --- Pediatrics

Epileptology - The Modern State of Science

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ISBN: 9789535126980 9789535126997 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.5772/61409 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Epilepsy seems to represent one of the most frequent neurological diseases and occurs in about 1% of the general population. Although epilepsy is known since antiquity, the precise data on its pathogenesis and effective treatment are still collected and nowadays represents an interest for neurologists and psychiatrists. Being a neurological disease, epilepsy is characterized by a broad palette of comorbid psychiatric disorders (affective and anxiety disorders, psychoses) that reduce the quality of life. Moreover, the risk of suicidal attempts in persons with epilepsy is much higher than in general population that once again increases the actuality of epilepsy research in many aspects. The book contains 13 chapters written by different authors from all over the world on different topics, including phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment in epilepsy. The modern data on these topics may be helpful for many specialists in the domain of epileptology.

Experimental models of early exposure to alcohol: a way to unravel the neurobiology of mental retardation

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194728 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-472-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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Excessive alcohol drinking represents a major social and public health problem for several countries. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy leads to a complex syndrome referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), chiefly characterized by mental retardation. The effects of early exposure to ethanol can be reproduced in laboratory animals and this helped to answer several key questions concerning the human pathology. The interest of experimental models of FASD is twofold. First, they increase our knowledge about the dose and modality of alcohol consumption able to induce damaging effects on the developing brain. Second, experimental models of FASD can provide useful hints to elucidate the basic mechanisms leading to the intellectual disability. In fact, experimental exposure to alcohol can be carried out during discrete, often very restricted, time windows. As a consequence, FASD models, though depending on the multifaceted interference of alcohol with several molecular pathways, can provide valuable information about which specific developmental periods and brain areas are critically involved in the genesis of mental retardation. Putting together data obtained through several experimental paradigms of alcohol exposure and those deriving from other genetic and non-genetic models, one can figure out to what extent different types of mental retardation share common pathogenetic mechanisms. The present Research Topic is aimed at establishing the state of the art of the current research on experimental FASD, focusing on differences and homologies with other types of intellectual disability. The ultimate goal is to find out a common roadmap in view of future therapeutical approaches.

Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

In Memory of Mary Ellen Avery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193639 Year: Pages: 24 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-363-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Mary Ellen Avery was the driving force behind the discipline of Neonatology. She fought against convention when she published her ground-breaking paper in 1959 showing that Hyaline Membrane Disease was caused by lung surfactant deficiency. Up until then it was thought to be an due to amniotic fluid aspiration, as suggested by Hoccheim in 1903. She encouraged her students to think out of the box, as long as we were studying ‘something that you couldn’t live without’. In addition to being a great clinician-researcher she was a mentor. The article is by her former students writing about their personal experiences under the tutelage of Mel Avery.

Microcirculation Revisited - From Molecules to Clinical Practice

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ISBN: 9789535127307 9789535127314 9789535141624 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.5772/61893 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The book provides a comprehensive overview of selected topics in microcirculation, from physiology to pathophysiology including molecular mechanisms and clinical aspects. It contains 10 chapters written by reputed authors, which comprehensively sum up the current knowledge and some interesting new insights in the field of microcirculation. It will be useful to a broad range of audience, from students to highly profiled experts, helping them to expand their knowledge on microcirculation and opening up additional questions for further investigation.

Neonatal and Pediatric Cerebro-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456598 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-659-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Pediatric resuscitation medicine has witnessed significant advances with improved understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Multiple mechanisms of neurological injury have been identified, outlining potential avenues for neuroprotection following cardiac arrest. Resuscitation science exists at multiple levels of analysis, from biomechanics of chest compressions to implementation of best training procedures in real time, from epidemiology of cardiac arrest survival to molecular mechanisms of cellular injury due to ischemia and reperfusion. What next steps in research and in clinical practice will ensure the best possible neurologic outcome among children who survive cardiac arrest? How can we leverage novel technologies in neuroimaging, nanomaterials, drug delivery, biomarker-based risk stratification and next generation sequencing, among others, to resuscitate and to protect the Central Nervous System (CNS)? How can we improve clinical trial design and data analyses to maintain a robust clinical research infrastructure and to ensure validity and applicability? These are just some of the questions will addressed in this Research Topic. Using evidence-based algorithms and public health approaches to disseminate them, the last decade has seen a paradigm shift in pediatric resuscitation with significantly improved survival from pediatric cardiac arrests. However, neurologic outcome in survivors remains far from optimal. High quality CPR is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving neurologic outcomes. Advanced technologies allow monitoring the quality of CPR and just-in-time feedback to improve the quality of CPR. Further research is needed to evaluate impact of these technologies on neurologic outcome. The recent American Heart Association CPR guidelines emphasis on Circulation-Airway-Breathing (CAB) approach to CPR needs a careful evaluation in children, in whom timely airway and breathing support are as important as circulation. The growing controversy regarding use of epinephrine, and alternative routes of administration of epinephrine during CPR, warrants further evaluation in the setting of pediatric CPR. Improved outcome of hemodynamic goal-directed CPR over standard CPR in animal models of cardiac arrest has initiated interest in physiology-based CPR, especially in the in-hospital cardiac arrest. Basic and applied-science research have become relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (e.g., ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Just-in-time and just-in-place simulation training, which have evolved as training strategies to improve quality of CPR, are being evaluated for outcomes. The concept of just-in-time and just-in-place coaching of CPR providers on high quality CPR is a novel concept which has emerged recently and remains unstudied. Whilst there have been significant advances in newborn stabilization over the last decade many questions remain unanswered. These include the role of delayed cord clamping in preterm infants and term newborns requiring resuscitation, the role of sustained inflations as a method of respiratory support and the role of epinephrine and volume administration in neonatal resuscitation. Novel methods of assessment including the use of end tidal CO2 monitoring, respiratory function monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy warrant further evaluation. The use of transitioning animal models that accurately replicate the newborn circulation with patent fetal shunts are emerging but more assessments in these are required to better establish CPR strategies in newborn infants. Newborn resuscitation training programs have resulted in a reduction in neonatal mortality in the developing world, but key questions remain around the frequency of training, team training methods and the role of simulation training. Post resuscitation interventions, in particular therapeutic hypothermia, has resulted in significant improvements in long-term outcome and there is now a growing interest in adjunct therapies, such as use of melatonin, erythropoietin, or other neuroprotective molecules to improve therapeutic benefits of cooling. Therapeutic hypothermia did not provide any higher benefit than normothermia in children following out of hospital cardiac arrest, although three is considerable debate in the community whether 14% probability of observing a similar outcome if the study were repeated a 100 times applies to an individual child in the PICU. Exciting research is occurring in unraveling connection between inflammation, immune dysregulation and neuroinjury. This will further support research on the use of anti-inflammatory agents and immunomodulators for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest and birth asphyxia.

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