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Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197699 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-769-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with patchy BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Advances in Pancreatic Cancer

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ISBN: 9781789236408 9781789236415 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72393 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Pancreatic cancer is a growing source of cancer-related death and has poor survival rates, which have not improved in the last few decades. Its high-mortality rate is attributed to pancreatic cancer biology, difficulty in early diagnosis, and lack of standardized international guidelines in assessing the pancreatic masses. This book aims to provide an update in the current state of play in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and to evaluate the benefits and limitations of the available diagnostic technology and therapy. The main modalities for diagnosis are imaging with HCT, MRI, USE, and PET. Some chapters review the improvements in the techniques used. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer can lead to improve in the current poor outcome of this disease.

Advances in the Molecular Understanding of Colorectal Cancer

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ISBN: 9781789850598 9781789850604 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77960 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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An understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer by researchers and clinicians is essential to facilitate progress in improving patient outcomes in this common cancer that still carries a poor prognosis if not identified early. This book covers the major areas of importance in the field, incorporating new knowledge that has arisen due to the advancement of molecular techniques and the ability to correlate molecular changes with clinical behaviour of tumours. Each chapter is a summary written by experts, concisely summarising current data as well as highlighting potential areas for advancement. Appreciating the differences between tumours on a molecular level is the key to developing and delivering precision medicine, and nowhere is this more critically required than in the field of colorectal cancer.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed. The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

Bile Duct Cancer

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ISBN: 9781789238754 9781789238761 9781839622151 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78186 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of malignant tumor that affects the biliary system. It can arise anywhere in the bile ducts, manifesting itself as obstructive jaundice. It has an annual incidence of 1-2 cases per 100,000 people. One variety of the disease, the Klatskin tumor, occurs in the hepatic hilum and is characterized by poor prognosis. Generally, cholangiocarcinomas are slow-growing tumors with late metastases. Localized tumors are treated surgically, but intervention is discouraged when they are extensive. The disease affects both sexes, but most cases occur in patients aged over 60 years. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic biliary infection, and choledochal cysts are associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma.

The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias

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ISBN: 9783038427957 9783038427964 Year: Pages: VI, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 13:45:41
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There has been an observed decrease in the global mortality from cancer, mostly atributable to improved, particularly early, detection and prevention. For many carcinomas and leukaemias in adults, once the disease has reached a certain stage there are no therapies that are able to erradicate the cancer cells and cure patients. There has been progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and remissions are achievable; however, the presence of chemoresistent blast cells leads to most patients relapsing, and relapse is difficult to treat and thus patients die due to their disease. Targeting these resistent cells and the leukaemia stem cells, which sustain the leukaemia, is crucial for an effective therapy for AML. Moreover, an increasing number of diverse mutations have been described in AML cells that disrupt the ability of these cells to undergo differentiation. The use of pro-differentiating agents to drive the blast cells to mature, and subsequently undergo apoptosis, provides another approach to therapy. Differentiation therapy, using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an inducer of granulocyte differentiation, has been highly successful in the case of acute promyeloicytic leukaemia, a sub-type of AML, turning this disease into a curable malignancy.

Biology-Driven Targeted Therapy of Pediatric Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors: Current Opportunities and Future Challenges

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198191 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-819-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Recent advances in the understanding of the biological basis of pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, especially owing to the advent of “omics” technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the current knowledge on the genetic and cellular patho-mechanisms that drive these diseases. This offers the unprecedented opportunity to develop and implement targeted therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, oncolytic viruses, and immunotherapies in standard and/or personalized treatment regimens. However, to date only a few examples document a successful translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Recent international expert congresses such as the “Pediatric Cancer Translational Genomics” conference (Phoenix, Arizona, 2012), the ESF-EMBO workshop on “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas” (Pultusk, Poland, 2012), and the AACR special meeting on “Pediatric Cancer at the Crossroads – Translating Discovery into Improved Outcomes” (San Diego, California, 2013) further emphasize the urgent need for a more rapid and especially more successful translational process. Hence, we strongly believe that a Frontiers Research Topic aiming at this aspect would fit just in time and that it would have great potential to receive numerous contributions of outstanding experts of the field. The proposed Frontiers Research Topic shall provide a platform for active and interdisciplinary discussion, summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge on all basic research and translational aspects in pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, and offer new perspectives of how to further promote and accelerate the translational process. We welcome high-quality original research articles, brief reports, as well as opinion, hypothesis, and review articles, and especially encourage submissions from early-career scientists.

Bladder Cancer - Management of NMI and Muscle-Invasive Cancer

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ISBN: 9789535130772 9789535130789 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/63252 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Bladder cancer is one of the most exciting urological cancers. It exists in two forms - non-muscle-invasive (NMI) and muscle-invasive (MI) disease. The difference in the clinical picture has been the focus of significant research in defining the molecular characteristics of urothelial cancer (UC) of the bladder. This book provides an overview of the most hotly debated areas in bladder cancer. Authors have focused on the emerging role of markers for NMI UC and various ways of improving the efficacy of current chemotherapy in the first section. The second section has focused on the surgical aspects of MI UC. Two major areas of debate - the role of pelvic lymph node dissection and genital sparing surgery - are discussed in this section.

Brain Tumors - An Update

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ISBN: 9781789235562 9781789235579 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70986 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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We all know that the field of neuro-oncology is heterogeneous and under continuous development with the addition of new knowledge and information on a regular basis. The present book ""Brain Tumor - An Update"" is an attempt to share the personal experiences of experts who are involved in neuro-oncology-related research. Through this book, the authors share their experiences and provide details about the pathophysiology, neuroimaging approaches, and management options, and how to go about decision-making in patients with brain tumors. We hope that the valuable contributions from the authors shall facilitate understanding about brain tumors. I am grateful to all the authors who have contributed their tremendous expertise, and I would like to acknowledge the outstanding support of Ms. Danijela Sakic, Author Service Manager, IntechOpen Science, who collaborated tirelessly in crafting this book.

Breast Cancer - From Biology to Medicine

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ISBN: 9789535129998 9789535130000 Year: Pages: 568 DOI: 10.5772/62922 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Breast Cancer - From Biology to Medicine thoroughly examines breast cancer from basic definitions, to cellular and molecular biology, to diagnosis and treatment. This book also has some additional focus on preclinical and clinical results in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The book begins with introduction on epidemiology and pathophysiology of breast cancer in Section 1. In Section 2, the subsequent chapters introduce molecular and cellular biology of breast cancer with some particular signaling pathways, the gene expression, as well as the gene methylation and genomic imprinting, especially the existence of breast cancer stem cells. In Section 3, some new diagnostic methods and updated therapies from surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and some complementary therapies are discussed. This book provides a succinct yet comprehensive overview of breast cancer for advanced students, graduate students, and researchers as well as those working with breast cancer in a clinical setting.

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