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2015: Which new directions for Alzheimer's disease?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195350 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-535-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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According to the World Health Organization, more than 40 million people in the world are affected with dementia. To date, 60-70% of the cases of dementia are attributed to the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurodegenerative disorder gradually takes place over a period of at least 20 years before the onset of symptoms, which are impaired memory, apathy and depression. The characteristics of AD consist in neurofibrillary tangles (intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins) and senile plaques (dense extraneuronal deposits composed of amyloid ß (Aß)). The other features linked to these two core pathological hallmarks of AD are inflammation, oxidative stress, progressive synaptic and neuronal loss. In past years, some of the emerging therapeutic strategies against AD were employed to deal with the pathological hallmarks of the disease. Science teams all over the world try to restore the tau phosphorylation equilibrium. Their purpose is to interfere with the aggregation of tau and decrease its amount of proteins per se as well. Furthermore, they are trying either to stimulate the elimination processes of the aggregated tau proteins or to stop the formation of Aß peptides. This could be reached by the stimulation of the classic techniques of protein degradation such as the autophagic pathway, or by the targeted immunotherapy. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the etiology of AD and the related therapeutic opportunities for the next decades. To fully understand the precise mechanisms underlying AD, research findings, reviews, new insights and new approaches include AD and related tauopathies, tau phosphorylation balance, pharmacological compounds against AD, neuroprotection strategies and new therapeutic ways but also risk factors for AD and AD genetic information are included in this issue.

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis: Olfaction, Hippocampus and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199631 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-963-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In the mid-sixties, the discovery by Altman and co-workers of neurogenesis in the adult brain changed the previous conception of the immutability of this organ during adulthood sustained among others by Cajal. This discovery was ignored up to eighty’s when Nottebohm demonstrated neurogenesis in birds. Subsequently, two main neurogenic zones were characterized: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. Half century later, the exact role of new neurons in the adult brain is not completely understand. This book is composed by a number of articles by leaders in the filed covering from an historic perspective to potential therapeutic opportunities.

Keywords

Alzheimer --- Dopamine --- glia --- Epilepsy --- Exercise --- Stroke

Abstract Mathematical Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198160 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-816-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.

Acknowledgements (Book chapter)

Book title: Rethinking Interdisciplinarity across the Social Sciences and Neurosciences

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ISBN: 9781137407955 Year: Pages: 157 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: Wellcome Trust - 103817
Subject: Neurology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:50

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This book offers a provocative account of interdisciplinary research across the neurosciences, social sciences and humanities. Setting itself against standard accounts of interdisciplinary 'integration,' and rooting itself in the authors' own experiences, the book establishes a radical agenda for collaboration across these disciplines. Rethinking Interdisciplinarity does not merely advocate interdisciplinary research, but attends to the hitherto tacit pragmatics, affects, power dynamics, and spatial logics in which that research is enfolded. Understanding the complex relationships between brains, minds, and environments requires a delicate, playful and genuinely experimental interdisciplinarity, and this book shows us how it can be done.

Active Touch Sensing

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192489 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-248-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Active touch can be described as the control of the position and movement of tactile sensing systems to facilitate information gain. In other words, it is finding out about the world by reaching out and exploring - sensing by ‘touching’ as opposed to ‘being touched’. In this Research Topic (with cross-posting in both Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurorobotics) we welcomed articles from junior researchers on any aspect of active touch. We were especially interested in articles on the behavioral, physiological and neuronal underpinnings of active touch in a range of species (including humans) for submission to Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. We also welcomed articles describing robotic systems with biomimetic or bio-inspired tactile sensing systems for publication in Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193066 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-306-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The brain of each animal shows specific traits that reflect its phylogenetic history and its particular lifestyle. Therefore, comparing brains is not just a mere intellectual exercise, but it helps understanding how the brain allows adaptive behavioural strategies to face an ever-changing world and how this complex organ has evolved during phylogeny, giving rise to complex mental processes in humans and other animals. These questions attracted scientists since the times of Santiago Ramon y Cajal one of the founders of comparative neurobiology. In the last decade, this discipline has undergone a true revolution due to the analysis of expression patterns of morphogenetic genes in embryos of different animals. The papers of this e-book are good examples of modern comparative neurobiology, which mainly focuses on the following four Grand Questions: a) How are different brains built during ontogeny? b) What is the anatomical organization of mature brains and how can they be compared? c) How do brains work to accomplish their function of ensuring survival and, ultimately, reproductive success? d) How have brains evolved during phylogeny? The title of this e-book, Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution, stresses the importance of comparative studies to understand brain function and, the reverse, of considering brain function to properly understand brain evolution. These issues should be taken into account when using animals in the research of mental function and dysfunction, and are fundamental to understand the origins of the human mind.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194940 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-494-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Advanced Neuroimaging Methods for Studying Autism Disorder

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453160 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-316-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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In the last twenty years, many attempts have been made to provide neurobiological models of autism. Functional, structural and connectivity analyses have highlighted reduced responses in key social areas, such as amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and superior temporal sulcus. However, these studies present discrepant results and some of them have been questioned for methodological limitations. The aim of this research topic is to present advanced neuroimaging methods able to capture the complexity of the neural deficits displayed in autism. This special issue presents new studies using structural and functional MRI, as well as magnetoencephalography, and novel protocols to analyze data (Analysis of Cluster Variability, Noise Reduction Strategies, Source-based Morphometry, Functional Connectivity Density, Restriction Spectrum Imaging and the others). We believe it is time to integrate data provided by different techniques and methodologies in order to have a better understanding of autism.

Advances in Modern Mental Chronometry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195664 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-566-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Mental chronometry encompasses all aspects of time processing in the nervous system and constitutes a standard tool in many disciplines including theoretical and experimental psychology and human neuroscience. Mental chronometry has represented a fundamental approach to elucidate the time course of many cognitive phenomena and their underlying neural circuits over more than a century. Nowadays, mental chronometry continues evolving and expanding our knowledge, and our understanding of the temporal organization of the brain in combination with different neuroscience techniques and advanced methods in mathematical analysis. In research on mental chronometry, human reaction/responses times play a central role. Together with reaction times, other topics in mental chronometry include vocal, manual and saccadic latencies, subjective time, psychological time, interval timing, time perception, internal clock, time production, time representation, time discrimination, time illusion, temporal summation, temporal integration, temporal judgment, redundant signals effect, perceptual, decision and motor time, etc. The aim of this research topic is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this field?its relevance, recent findings, current challenges, perspectives and future directions. Thus, as a result, a collection of 14 original research and opinion papers from different experts have been gathered together in a single volume.

Advances in Systems Immunology and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193134 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-313-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Biology --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Aims and Scope: The Research Topic is designed to feature the latest innovative and leading-edge research, reviews and opinions on the study of complex and dynamic processes related to the mammalian immune system and cancer. All papers were meticulously selected to present our readers the multidisciplinary approach to tackle the existing challenges faced in these important fields. From high throughput experimental methodologies to computational and theoretical approaches, the articles are intended to introduce physicists, chemists, computer scientists, biologists and immunologists the idea of systems biology approach to the understanding of mammalian immune system and cancer processes. Attention was given to works that developed more effective approaches to the treatment of proinflammatory disease and cancer. The strong interdisciplinary focus will discuss biological systems at the level from a few molecules to the entire organism. Specific focus domain includes: Innate and adaptive immunity, cancer and cancer stem cell, genomic, proteomic and metabolic analysis, imaging, biophysics of immune and cancer response, computational modeling, non-linear analysis, statistical analysis, translational and disease models Types of articles: Viewpoint, commentaries, research letters, research articles, review and methodologies

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