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Afforestation and Reforestation: Drivers, Dynamics, and Impacts

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039214471 / 9783039214488 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-448-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Afforestation/reforestation (or forestation) has been implemented worldwide as an effective measure towards sustainable ecosystem services and addresses global environmental problems such as climate change. The conversion of grasslands, croplands, shrublands, or bare lands to forests can dramatically alter forest water, energy, and carbon cycles and, thus, ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, and water quality improvement). Large-scale afforestation/reforestation is typically driven by policies and, in turn, can also have substantial socioeconomic impacts. To enable success, forestation endeavors require novel approaches that involve a series of complex processes and interdisciplinary sciences. For example, exotic or fast-growing tree species are often used to improve soil conditions of degraded lands or maximize productivity, and it often takes a long time to understand and quantify the consequences of such practices at watershed or regional scales. Maintaining the sustainability of man-made forests is becoming increasingly challenging under a changing environment and disturbance regime changes such as wildland fires, urbanization, drought, air pollution, climate change, and socioeconomic change. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on case studies of the drivers, dynamics, and impacts of afforestation/reforestation at regional, national, or global scales. These new studies provide an update on the scientific advances related to forestation. This information is urgently needed by land managers and policy makers to better manage forest resources in today’s rapidly changing environments.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (III)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811332180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-3218-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Forestry --- Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Technology --- Environmental Sciences --- Zoology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:24
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This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.

Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests

Authors:
ISBN: 9783038975748 / 9783038975755 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-575-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-18 12:03:56
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Global forest communities cover only about 30% of land areas, but they provide important ecosystem services, such as watershed protection, carbon sequestration, and oxygen production, as well as renewable forest products for human subsistence and markets. Forests also support the majority of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Although land conversion for agriculture and pastureland has historically resulted in fragmentation and declining forested areas, forests worldwide are now experiencing change at an unprecedented rate due to various anthropogenic activities and growing human populations. Global warming trends are altering snowpack and hydrology, fostering outbreaks of native forest pests, and accelerating the loss of older tree age classes. Modeling suggests that future fire regimes in temperate regions will have shorter return intervals, with more severe wildfires. In addition, a by-product of trade and travel globalization has been the accelerated transport of plants and animals, and plant and animal diseases, around the world. Exotic species have altered community composition, especially where foundation tree species are affected. Every forest community worldwide is challenged by some of these problems. In this Special Issue of the journal Forests we explore the unique biodiversity supported by forest communities, how forest communities are rapidly changing, and conservation approaches to preserving forest biodiversity.

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

Authors:
ISBN: 9783038976820 / 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

Conifers

Authors:
ISBN: 9781789848007 9781789848014 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73422 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The conifer tree can lead to a wide variety of products and services. Overall, the evaluation, management and planning of the multiplicity of these forest systems requires effective and specific methods and tools in a sustainable frame of the systems and of their products and services. This book reflects the current research on conifer stands and forests. The authors, specialists in different areas, addressed several issues in forest science, focusing on the species' characteristics, silviculture and climate change; growth analysis; reconstruction of stand dynamics of mixed stands; establishment, regeneration and succession; litter-fall, nutrient cycle and silviculture; distribution and zonation; and ecosystem services provided by monocultures and mixed stands.

Conquering the Highlands

Authors:
ISBN: 9781922144782 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459902 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-03 22:50:53
License: ANU Press

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Ecology; Deforestation; Scotland

Keywords

ecology --- scotland --- deforestation

Ecological Management of Pine Forests

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974253 / 9783038974260 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-426-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 11:16:47
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Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.

Erfolgsfaktoren für die Beteiligung forstlicher Akteure an der integrierten ländlichen Entwicklung - Das Beispiel LEADER+ Programm der EU-Strukturpolitik

Authors:
ISBN: 10178752008266 9783940344328 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The European Union underlines the growing importance of integrated rural development (ILE). Maximilian Ortner shows how forestry can successfully participate in this development. Forest model projects for drinking water, wood mobilization, increase in sales of wood, energy out of wood, forest preservation or airport environmental education are analyzed as examples of acts of the forestry practice in the context of integrated rural development. The examples are based on the state forests, local forest, private forest owners and the Chamber of Agriculture. About the identified success factors inform a "checklist" with the chance of success of specific projects can be assessed quickly.

Forest Biomass and Carbon

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789843613 9781789843620 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69011 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Forests grow and their biomass increases; they absorb carbon from the atmosphere and store it in plant tissue. Understanding the biomass of forest vegetation is essential for determining the storage of carbon in the dominant tree component and computing carbon cycling at a regional as well as global level. This book consisting of five chapters will give a comprehensive understanding of biomass production vis-

Forest Fire

Authors:
ISBN: 9781789230727 9781789230734 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69417 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book concerns the different aspects of forest fires, the impact of fire on both forest resources (e.g. forest cover) and communities that use different forest functions. Therefore, forest fires have their environmental, economic and social consequences, and none of them is less important. Forest fires can be caused by both natural forces and anthropogenic factors, and in the latter case, it is extremely interesting to profile the potential arsonist. Forest fires may also cause conflicts, stronger or weaker, in local communities that have been using forests for years. These conflicts can be solved both by gradually changing the law itself and through education at the local level. Not less important is the ability to detect fires early, which can be helped by the development of modern technologies. In limiting the effects of forest fires, it may also be helpful to develop mathematical models that indicate various factors affecting the possibility of a fire or affecting the rate of its spread. Not less important is the attempt to assess the direction of forest regeneration after the fire has ceased, in understanding what the help of modern technology is. These aspects of forest fire are the subject of this book. I realize, however, that the contents in it can only be an incentive for the reader to learn more, in an interesting aspect. I assume that this book will be valuable to researchers as well as students who are interested in different aspects connected to forest fires, not only from the ecological point of view but also from the social one. Both are extremely important in future forest protection and sustainable use of forest by local communities.

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