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Les Scories de forge du Pays dogon (Mali) Entre ethnoarchéologie, archéologie expérimentale et archéométrie

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ISBN: 9783952454299 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 209 DOI: 10.19218/3952454299 Language: French
Publisher: LIBRUM Publishers & Editors LLC
Subject: Archaeology --- Mining and Metallurgy --- Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-16 16:41:15
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Slide 1 Les Scories de forge du Pays dogon Les Scories de forge du Pays dogon (Mali) Entre ethnoarchéologie, archéologie expérimentale et archéométrie Cet ouvrage est le résultat d’une thèse de doctorat menée entre le Pays dogon au Mali, et l’université de Fribourg en Suisse, entre fin 2007 et début 2014. Le point central de cette recherche concerne une classe de mobilier archéologique que sont les scories de forge, déchets métallurgiques qui se forment au fond du foyer de forge au cours du travail traditionnel d’objets en fer. Les études qui leur sont consacrées montrent que ces matériaux montrent une incroyable variabilité, qui témoigne de l’immense diversité des travaux de forge. Les recherches actuelles cherchent ainsi naturellement à établir un lien entre les scories, mises au jour par les archéologues, et les activités de forge passées. L’originalité de cette recherche est le développement d’une démarche de travail, au croisement de l’ethnoarchéologie, l’archéologie expérimentale et l’archéométrie. Ce travail a comporté une phase de terrain au Pays dogon (Mali), où forgerons et traditions métallurgiques sont encore préservés. Cette recherche de terrain a donné lieu à des expérimentations dirigées de travaux de forge, durant lesquels différents paramètres sont contrôlés. Le travail de laboratoire a permis de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques intrinsèques des scories. Toutes ces données mettent en lumière des groupes distincts de scories de forge, et constituent un référentiel unique. Raphaëlle Soulignac propose différents scenarii de modalités de formation des scories dans le foyer, en lien avec les travaux qui les ont produits. Ce travail permet ainsi d’enrichir nos connaissances sur les gestes, les pratiques des forgerons et les déchets de forgeage, en mettant en avant un patrimoine important de nos sociétés anciennes.

Advanced Casting Technologies

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ISBN: 9781789230321 9781789230338 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68254 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Major casting processing advancements have been made in experimental and simulation areas. Newly developed advanced casting technologies allow foundry researchers to explore detailed phenomena associated with new casting process parameters helping to produce defect-free castings with good quality. Moreover, increased computational power allows foundry technologists to simulate advanced casting processes to reduce casting defects. In view of rapid expansion of knowledge and capability in the exciting field of casting technology, it is possible to develop new casting techniques. This book is intended to discuss many casting processing technologies. It is devoted to advanced casting processing technologies like ductile casting production and thermal analysis, casting of metal matrix composites by vortex stir casting technique, aluminum DC casting, evaporative casting process, and so on. This book entitled Advanced Casting Technologies has been organized into seven chapters and categorized into four sections. Section 1 discusses the production of ductile iron casting and thermal analysis. Section 2 depicts aluminum casting. Section 3 describes the casting manufacturing aspects of functionally graded materials and evaporative casting process. Section 4 explains about the vortex stir casting technique to process metal matrix composite castings. All the chapters discussed in detail the processing steps, process parameters involved in the individual casting technique, and also its applications. The goal of the book is to provide details on the recent casting technologies.

Advances in Welding Metal Alloys, Dissimilar Metals and Additively Manufactured Parts

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ISBN: 9783038973720 9783038973737 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-373-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-29 09:42:07
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Welding technology has been taken for granted as a mature and established technology for too long. However, many new welding technologies have been included among the alternatives to joining materials. They come both from the areas of fusion and solid-state welding. Moreover, a recent approach has offered one more alternative. This is hybrid welding, which couples two or more welding sources in a cooperative or synergic welding mode. Welding engineers and scientists have the task to understand which is the best technology for a specific application. This task requires deep knowledge and great intelligence to tackle the challenge of producing light and smart structures and products. In this book, a glimpse of recent developments in metal alloy welding is presented. Laser, friction, and arc welding are the main protagonists of the papers that are included. Processes, materials, and tools are described and studied along with investigation procedures and numerical simulations. This book will make you aware of most of the subjects discussed in the scientific community and new potentialities of welding as a leading technology in manufacturing. I hope you enjoy reading this Special Issue, "Advances in Welding Metal Alloys, Dissimilar Metals and Additively Manufactured Parts".

Alloy Steels

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ISBN: 9783038428831 9783038428848 Year: Pages: X, 320 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 14:03:05
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Alloy steels play a pivotal role in modern society. Their continued development improves the human condition for everyone on earth. Their broad use has resulted in a wide variety of continuing challenges to address economic, manufacturing, and industrial issues. This book contains twenty-three papers covering a wide cross-section of alloy steels and technical problems. Readers interested in solving current manufacturing and application problems will find this issue helpful. The papers contained within cover a wide range of topics by a broad set of authors from across the globe. There are papers covering structure–property relations on various alloys. Other papers discuss the proper processing of alloy steels through the welding, electroslag remelting, and rolling processes. A significant number of the papers cover optimizing the heat treatment of traditional alloys as well as new alloys. There are papers that concentrate on providing real-world performance data on alloy steels, an important but under-studied topic. Of particular interest is a review on the welding of austenitic and duplex stainless steels that gives neophytes and experienced researchers an excellent introduction to the state-of-the-art. This collection of work should be valuable to anyone interested in alloy steels.

Aluminium Alloys - Recent Trends in Processing, Characterization, Mechanical Behavior and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535136972 9789535136989 9789535140283 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.5772/68032 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The major issue of energy saving and conservation of the environment in the world is being emphasized to us to concentrate on lightweight materials in which aluminium alloys are contributing more in applications in the twenty-first century. Aluminium and its related materials possess lighter weight, considerable strength, more corrosion resistance and ductility. Especially from the past one decade, the use of aluminium alloys is increasing in construction field, transportation industries, packaging purposes, automotive, defence, aircraft and electrical sectors. Around 85% is being used in the form of wrought products, which replace the use of cast iron. Further, the major features of aluminium alloy are recyclability and its abundant availability in the world. In general, aluminium and its related materials are being processed via casting, drawing, forging, rolling, extrusion, welding, powder metallurgy process, etc. To improve the physical and mechanical properties, scientists are doing more research and adding some second-phase particles in to it called composites in addition to heat treatment. Therefore, to explore more in this field, the present book has been aimed and focused to bridge all scientists who are working in this field. The main objective of the present book is to focus on aluminium, its alloys and its composites, which include, but are not limited to, the various processing routes and characterization techniques in both macro- and nano-levels.

Aluminum Alloys

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ISBN: 9783038424741 9783038424758 Year: Pages: 162374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-475-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 13:07:31
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Aluminium is the world’s most abundant metal and is the third most common element, comprising 8% of the Earth’s crust. The versatility of aluminium makes it the most widely used metal after steel. By utilising various combinations of their advantageous properties such as strength, lightness, corrosion resistance, recyclability, and formability, aluminium alloys are being employed in an ever-increasing number of applications. In the recent decade, a rapid new development has been made in production of aluminium alloys, and new techniques of casting, forming, welding, and surface modification, have been evolved to improve the structural integrity of aluminium alloys. This Special Issue covers wide scope of recent progress and new developments regarding all aspects of aluminium alloys, including processing, forming, welding, microstructure and mechanical property, creep, fatigue, corrosion and surface behavior, thermodynamics, modeling, and application of different aluminum alloys.

Antike Schmelztiegel Archäologie und Archäometrie der Funde aus Augusta Raurica

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Book Series: Beiträge zur Technikgeschichte | Studies in the History of Technology ISBN: 9783952454237 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 388 DOI: 10.19218/3952454237 Language: German
Publisher: LIBRUM Publishers & Editors LLC
Subject: Archaeology --- History --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-15 11:14:03
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Die römische Stadt Augusta Raurica bei Basel erbrachte u. a. zahlreiche archäologische Zeugnisse der frühen Metallverarbeitung, insbesondere Grabungsbefunde von Bronzegiesserwerkstätten und Hunderte von mobilen Zeugnissen ihrer Tätigkeit: Fehlgüsse, Halbfabrikate, Schmelztiegel, Gussformen usw. Die 893 Schmelztiegel bilden den bisher umfangreichsten archäologischen Fundbestand im antiken Europa. Ihnen ist die aktuelle archäologische und naturwissenschaftliche Studie gewidmet. Es handelt sich hierbei um eine einzigartige Untersuchung mit einem originellen und innovativen Forschungsansatz. Sie bildet eine wichtige Grundlage für weitere wirtschaftsgeschichtliche, archäologische und archäometrische Untersuchungen sowie für die experimentelle Archäologie und ist so verständlich geschrieben, dass sie auch für ein nicht-naturwissenschaftliches Publikum geeignet ist. Eine einzigartige Untersuchung mit originellem und innovativem Forschungsansatz. Die vielseitigen, interdisziplinären Untersuchungen verfolgen zwei Schwerpunkte: Einerseits werden die römischen Schmelztiegel von Augusta Raurica archäologisch dokumentiert und bezüglich der Tonherkunft sowie der Metallspuren erfolgreich analysiert. Andererseits werden mit Experimenteller Archäologie neue Wege beschritten, indem das Töpfern von Tiegeln, die Herstellung der äusseren «Verschleissschicht Lutum», das Zementieren von Messing sowie weitere Phänomene der Tiegel-Metallurgie erprobt und rekonstruiert werden.

Antike Stahlerzeugung. Ein Nachweis der Aufkohlung von Eisen aus Augusta Raurica Beiträge zur Technikgeschichte Bd. 2 | Studies in History of Technology Vol. 2

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Book Series: Beiträge zur Technikgeschichte Bd. 2 | Studies in History of Technology Vol. 2 ISBN: 9783906897288 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 176 DOI: 10.19218/3906897288 Language: German
Publisher: LIBRUM Publishers & Editors LLC
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- History --- Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-08 12:48:35
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Diser Band ist ein handliches Übersichtswerk über die früheste Stahlgewinnung. Ausgehend von sensationellen Funden aus der Römerstadt Augusta Raurica bei Basel, kommt der Autor zum Schluss, dass hier am Rheinknie, in der römischen Provinz Obergermanien, schon bald nach der römischen Eroberung, d. h. ab dem frühen 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr., härtbarer Stahl aus »Weicheisen« erzeugt worden ist. Analoge Funde aus dieser Zeit und Region kannte man bisher noch nicht! Der Hauptwert dieses Buches ist ein ausführlicher Überblick über alle bekannten Stahlerzeugungstechniken, die lange vor der Industrialisierung entwickelt und angewendet worden sind. Am Beispiel etwa des indischen »Tiegelstahls« oder des römischen »ferrum Noricum« (steirischer Stahl) werden archäologische, metallurgische und schriftliche Quellen beigezogen und vorgestellt. Anlass zur neuen Untersuchung waren die römischen Funde aus Augusta Raurica. Sie werden im zweiten Teil der Publikation archäologisch untersucht und präsentiert. Analysen ergaben, dass Reste von gebrannten Lehmumhüllungen vorliegen, in denen kleine Eisenbarren der Hitze ausgesetzt worden sind. Rezepte aus dem Mittelalter und der frühen Neuzeit, sowie ganz ähnliche, aber jüngere Funde aus der Wikingerzeit in Skandinavien legen nahe, dass in den Umhüllungen Eisen »aufgekohlt«, d. h. zu Stahl umgewandelt worden sein muss. Um diese Interpretation zu erhärten, wurde der von den Untersuchungsbefunden abgeleitete Prozess mit Hilfe der »Experimentellen Archäologie« nachvollzogen. Ein Vorbild interdisziplinärer Vorgehensweise: Geschichte und Technik, Befund und Experiment, Beobachtung und Analyse, Schriftquellen und Technologie, Archäologie und Industrie.

Austenitic Stainless Steels - New Aspects

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ISBN: 9789535137016 9789535137023 9789535140214 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.5772/67935 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Stainless steel is still one of the fastest growing materials. Today, the austenitic stainless steel with the classic composition of 18% Cr and 8% Ni (grade 304L) is still the most widely used by far in the world. The unique characteristic of stainless steel arises from three main factors. The versatility results from high corrosion resistance, excellent low- and high-temperature properties, high toughness, formability, and weldability. The long life of stainless steels has been proven in service in a wide range of environments, together with low maintenance costs compared to other highly alloyed metallic materials. The retained value of stainless steel results from the high intrinsic value and easy recycling. Stainless steel, especially of austenitic microstructure, plays a crucial role in achieving sustainable development nowadays, so it is also important for further generations.

Bismuth - Advanced Applications and Defects Characterization

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ISBN: 9781789232622 9781789232639 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71174 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Bismuth (Bi) is a post-transition metal element with the atomic number of 83, which belongs to the pnictogen group elements in Period 6 in the elemental periodic table. As a heavy metal, the hazard of Bi is unusually low in contrast to its neighbors Pb and Sb. This property, along with other typical characteristics like strong diamagnetism and low thermal conductivity, makes Bi attractive in industrial applications. There are more than 100 commercial bismuth products, from pharmaceutical to industrial catalysts. Based on the wide applications of Bi materials, this book goes further and mainly focuses on the potential uses of Bi-based materials, which consist of nine chapters. In addition, a special chapter concerning the defect in bismuth is also presented.

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