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Animal Umwelten in a Changing world: Zoosemiotic Perspectives

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Book Series: Tartu Semiotics Library ISSN: 14064278 ISBN: 9789949772810 Year: Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Science (General)
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The book raises semiotic questions of human–animal relations: what is the semiotic character of different species, how humans endow animals with meaning, and how animal sign exchange and communication has coped with environmental change. The book takes a zoosemiotic approach and considers different species as being integrated with the environment via their specific umwelt or subjective perceptual world. The authors elaborate J. v. Uexküll’s concept of umwelt to make it applicable for analyzing complex and dynamical interactions between animals, humans, environment and culture. The opening chapters of the book present a framework for philosophical, historical, epistemological and methodological aspects of zoosemiotic research. These initial considerations are followed by specific case studies: on human–animal interactions in zoological gardens, communication in the teams of visually disabled persons and guiding dogs, semiotics of the animal condition in philosophy, historical changes in the role of animals in human households, the semiotics of predation, cultural perception of novel species, and other topics. The authors belong to the research group in zoosemiotics and human–animal relations based in the Department of Semiotics at the University of Tartu in Estonia, and in the University of Stavanger in Norway.

The Models of Space, Time and Vision in V. Nabokov’s Fiction: Narrative Strategies and Cultural Frames

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Book Series: Tartu Semiotics Library ISSN: 14064278 (print), 2228-2149 (online) ISBN: 9789949320684 9789949113064 Year: Pages: 322 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Performing Arts --- Languages and Literatures --- Science (General)
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Marina Grishakova belongs to the younger generation scholars of the Tartu-Moscow school of semiotics. Her book is part of a semio-narratological tradition of a single author or a single work research that tackles issues of wider theoretical import: applicability of the concept of “modeling” in the humanities, theory of mimesis and the function of experimental literature in (post)modernist culture. By drawing on Y. Lotman’s conception of artistic models, the book adopts the semiotic perspective on modeling as an open-ended heuristic process underlying the logic of discovery and creative thinking. The book discusses the models of time and memory in modernist culture (Nietzsche’s and Bergson’s philosophy of time, Minkowski’s research on the psychopathological types of temporality) and their relevance to Nabokov’s fiction; popular-scientific notions of serialism and the fourth dimension; thematizations of the observer in modernist philosophy and arts; visual “prostheses” and “machines” (Eco), particularly the “camera vision” metaphor, its relation to Bergson’s notion of automatism and the popular idea of the criminal use of hypnosis. Vision is thematized also as a means of seduction and noncoercive control. Even before Foucault, Baudrillard and other critics of modernity, Nabokov noticed that advertising, political propaganda and erotic seduction alike employ implicit forms of suggestion. The book revises Rorty’s dilemma of “autonomy” and “solidarity” as applied to Nabokov’s work and offers new readings. It considers categories of narrative poetics as forms of cultural encoding that broaden and transform reader’s modes of perception and sense-making. Micro-models active in certain contexts or in the works of certain authors function as mobile interfaces between individual sensibilities and complex cultural chrono- and spatio-types where time and space take on conceptual meaning. (This title is the second revised edition, available online only. The web shop refers to the first edition, which is available as a paper monograph.)

A more developed sign: interpreting the work of Jesper Hoffmeyer

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Book Series: Tartu Semiotics Library ISSN: 14064278 ISBN: 9789949199457 Year: Pages: 334 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Science (General)
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For more than 40 years, Jesper Hoffmeyer has been committed to the idea of developing “a semiotics of nature, or biosemiotics as he chose to call this effort, that could intelligibly explain how all the phenomena of inherent meaning and signification in living nature – from the lowest level of sign processes in unicellular organisms to the cognitive and social behavior of animals – can emerge from a universe that was not so organized and meaningful from the very beginning” (Emmeche et al. 2002: 41). In this volume, over 80 world-class scholars from more than 20 countries select a short quotation taken from any of Jesper Hoffmeyer’s texts and provide their scholarly commentary upon that passage – whether in the form of an analytical explication, a critical disagreement or a conceptual extension – that as they feel asks the questions that need to be asked, proposes the ideas that need to be proposed, or that draws out the implications that need to be so explicitly drawn out, germane to the claims of the selected passage. At once a celebration and a serious academic development of the work of Jesper Hoffmeyer, this landmark volume marks the occasion of his 70th birthday on February 21, 2012.

The Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Estonia

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Book Series: Estonian Archaeology ISSN: 17363810 ISBN: 9789949117260 Year: Pages: 298 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Archaeology
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This book analyses social, economic, and cultural processes during the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (18th century BC – 5th century AD) in what is today Estonia. The above period between the Stone Age (ca. 9000–1800 BC) and the Middle Iron Age (AD 450–800) was an era of significant and crucial developmental processes. The final transition from a foraging to a farming economy occurred during that time and resulted in an extensive settlement shift from suitable hunting and fishing places to agricultural lands. In relation to the above processes, the general settlement pattern changed, and the agricultural household as the main settlement unit became prevalent. Social relations also changed, which contributed to the development of stratified societies, at first mainly in coastal Estonia and later throughout continental Estonia. Significant developments took place both in material and intellectual culture. By the end of the period the Estonian areas had changed beyond recognition compared to what they had been at the beginning of the period.

The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia

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Book Series: Estonian Archaeology ISSN: 17363810 ISBN: 9789949199365 Year: Pages: 384 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Archaeology
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This book analyses the society, economy, settlement, and culture of the territory of present-day Estonia in the period of ca AD 450–1050. This period is known in the Estonian archaeological chronology as the Migration Period, the Pre-Viking Age, and the Viking Age. This was an era of rapid change, by the end of which traditional Estonian peasant culture as it is known until the 19th century had developed. Whereas in Western Europe written sources from the second half of the first millennium AD herald the arrival of the Middle Ages, there is an almost complete absence of written information about the prevailing conditions and events that took place in the area of present-day Estonia. There are only remains of the farms and fortresses of that time beneath the earth, as well as cemeteries, overgrown field baulks and clearance cairns, and the large amount of excavated ancient objects or fragments thereof. Many aspects of prehistoric life cannot be researched because the source material is not extant and there is no hope of finding it. Moreover, many phenomena of human life do not generate archaeological source material. Thus our overall understanding of the Estonian Middle Iron Age and the Viking Age is inevitably fragmentary and superficial.

Archaeological Research in Estonia 1865–2005

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Book Series: Estonian Archaeology ISSN: 17363810 ISBN: 9789949112333 Year: Pages: 388 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Science (General) --- Archaeology
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This volume is dedicated to the historiography and analysis of the present state of Estonian archaeology. Part I (articles by Valter Lang and Marge Konsa) provides a review of the general development of archaeological research in Estonia from the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century, focusing on institutional changes and advances in theoretical thinking and approaches. Part II includes articles by Aivar Kriiska, V. Lang, Andres Tvauri, Heiki Valk, Ain Mäesalu, Anton Pärn, Erki Russow and Arvi Haak on the previous research into the prehistoric and historical periods. In Part III, A. Tvauri and Mauri Kiudsoo discuss the formation and present situation of the archaeological and numismatic collections, and the establishment and development of archaeological heritage protection. Part IV discusses some more specific areas of research in Estonian archaeology, such as application of methods from the natural sciences in archaeology (A. Kriiska), settlement archaeology (V. Lang), underwater archaeology (Maili Roio), and connections between archaeology and oral tradition (H. Valk).

The Space of Culture – the Place of Nature in Estonia and Beyond

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Book Series: Approaches to Culture Theory ISSN: 2228060X ISBN: 9789949196234 Year: Pages: 191 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Social Sciences
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This volume sets out to construct a tentative bridge between the physical and perceived (academic) worlds, between the understandings of culture and nature, their spatiality and temporality by tackling the spatiality of culture phenomena across disciplinary boundaries. The contributions are arranged around a general question of how humans organise the spaces in which they live. The book is divided according to three themes: the humanities and ecosemiotic approach to nature, constructing nature, and examining environmental and landscape change. The first provides an historical review of the humanities and expands on the more theoretical themes. The second section discusses some ways in constructing (wild) nature with specific examples. The final one illustrates the changes that various cultures have brought about in the environment examining landscapes and domestication. The space of culture and the place of nature in various cultures are discussed critically throughout the volume in a way that challenges their ontological separations and invites to discuss culture-nature relationships on a more balanced basis.

Tradition und Moderne in der Literatur der Schweiz im 20. Jahrhundert

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Book Series: Humaniora: Germanistica ISSN: 1736–4345 ISBN: 9789949190188 Year: Pages: 234 Language: German
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
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The papers in this volume show the presence of Gottfried Keller, the literary father figure of Swiss literature, in the texts of the Swiss authors from 1960ies, such as Otto F. Walter, Hugo Loetscher, Adolf Muschg, and Urs Widmer. Although these authors work in the democratic tradition of Switzerland and have an almost identificatory relationship to Keller, their role in the changed political life of the 20th century is completely different from that of their great literary model. The volume also contains studies on other Swiss literary classics, such as Robert Walser and Meinrad Inglin, as well as later authors, such as Max Frisch and Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Erica Pedretti, Thomas Hürlimann, Silvio Blatter, Peter Stamm, and Gertrud Leutenegger.

In den in diesem Band zusammengetragenen Beiträgen wird die Präsenz des literarischen Übervaters der Schweizer Literatur, Gottfried Kellers, bei Autoren der 1960er Jahre wie Otto F. Walter, Hugo Loetscher, Adolf Muschg und Urs Widmer gezeigt. Diese engagierten Autoren, die sich zwar in die demokratische Tradition der Schweiz stellen und zu Keller in ein fast identifikatorisches Verhältnis treten, spielen anlässlich der veränderten politischen Öffentlichkeit im 20. Jahrhundert jedoch eine entschieden andere Rolle als ihr großes literarisches Vorbild. Aus der Sicht der Tradition und der Moderne werden im Hinblick auf die Schriftform und das Autobiographische sowie auf die Dorfwirklichkeit und die Karnevalisierung der Literatur die poetischen Auffassungen von zwei anderen Klassikern der Schweizer Literatur, von Robert Walser und Meinrad Inglin, in den Mittelpunkt der Betrachtungen und Diskussionen gerückt. Mit ihren Versuchen, die prekäre Nachkriegssituation in tragikomischen Dramen zu verarbeiten, kommen die beiden großen Beobachter der Auswirkungen des Faschismus, Frisch und Dürrenmatt zur Sprache. Vorgestellt wird Dürrenmatts politisches Engagement an seiner Auseinandersetzung mit dem „Vater der Wasserstoffbombe“, Edward Teller, die bei einer Fernsehdiskussion stattgefunden hatte. Der Einbruch der Moderne in die Familie wird an Autoren wie Erica Pedretti, Thomas Hürlimann und Silvio Blatter vorgeführt. Besonderes Augenmerk gilt jüngeren Autoren und Autorinnen wie Peter Stamm oder der zu Unrecht weniger bekannten Gertrud Leutenegger.

Nationalepen zwischen Fakten und Fiktionen

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Book Series: Humaniora: Germanistica ISSN: 1736–4345 ISBN: 9789949199112 Year: Pages: 321 Language: German
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
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Since the 19th century national epics have had an important function in the cultural scene of almost every nation, and the same is true for the Central and East European countries that have regained their independence after 1989. The programmatic national epic was brought to life by the German Romanticism, especially by writers such as Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. The contributions in this volume analyse the development, relationship, and reception of European national epics. They rely on a wide concept of epic and offer studies on various texts, such as the Icelandic sagas, the „Nibelungenlied“, the „Poems of Ossian“, the „Kinder- und Hausmärchen“ of the Grimm brothers, Schiller’s „Wilhelm Tell“, Božena Němcová’s „Babička“, Esaias Tegnér’s verse epic „Frit(h)iofs saga“, the Finnish national epic „Kalevala“ and the Estonian national epic „Kalevipoeg“.

Seit dem 19. Jahrhundert übernehmen Nationalepen eine wichtige Funktion im kulturellen Haushalt fast jeder Nation – wie sich nicht zuletzt in den nach 1989 neu entstandenen Ländern (Mittel-)Osteuropas eindrücklich bestätigt hat. Installiert worden ist das nationalepische Programm von der deutschen Romantik, insbesondere von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm. Die in diesem Band versammelten Aufsätze analysieren die Entstehung, die Vernetzung und die Rezeption von europäischen Nationalepen. Ausgehend von einem weiten Epos-Begriff wenden sich die Beiträge solchen Texten zu, die für die Nationsbildung konstitutive Bedeutung erhalten sollten, wie den Isländersagas, dem „Nibelungenlied“, den „Poems of Ossian“, den „Kinder- und Hausmärchen“ der Brüder Grimm, Schillers „Wilhelm Tell“, Božena Němcovás „Babička“, Esaias Tegnérs Versepos „Frit(h)iofs saga“, dem finnischen Nationalepos „Kalevala“ und dem estnischen Nationalepos „Kalevipoeg“.

Очерки по истории и культуре староверов Эстонии III [Studies on the history and culture of Old Believers in Estonia III]

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Book Series: Acta Slavica Estonica ISSN: 2228–2335 ISBN: 9789949321520 9789949321988 Year: Pages: 337 + 16 pages of co Language: Russian;
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Arts in general --- Languages and Literatures --- Religion --- Linguistics
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Acta Slavica Estonica is an international series of publications on current issues of Russian and other Slavic languages, literatures and cultures. This volume continues the tradition of publishing studies on the history and culture of the Old Believers in Estonia. It includes research papers on the topic, as well as transcripts of recorded texts from the Old Believers. The special focus of the volume is on the island Piirissaar, its history, architecture, people and their language, customs and traditions.

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