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The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signalprocessing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics.With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferometer. From this foundation, it delves into the underlying relationships of interferometry, sets forth the coordinate systems and parameters to describe synthesis imaging, and examines configurations of antennas for multielement synthesis arrays. Various aspects of the design and response of receiving systems are discussed, as well as the special requirements of verylongbaseline interferometry (VLBI), image reconstruction, and recent developments in image enhancement techniques and astrometric observations. Also discussed are propagation effects in the media between the source and the observer, and radio interference, factors that limit performance. Related techniques are introduced, including intensity interferometry, optical interferometry, lunar occultations, tracking of satellites in Earth orbit, interferometry for remote Earth sensing, and holographic measurements of antenna surfaces. This book will benefit anyone who is interested in radio interferometry techniques for astronomy, astrometry, geodesy, or electrical engineering.
astronomy  physics  communications  radio  engineering
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This open access book on the history of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory covers the scientific discoveries and technical innovations of late 20th century radio astronomy with particular attention to the people and institutions involved. The authors have made extensive use of the NRAO Archives, which contain an unparalleled collection of documents pertaining to the history of radio astronomy, including the institutional records of NRAO as well as the personal papers of many of the pioneers of U.S. radio astronomy. Technical details and extensive citations to original sources are given in notes for the more technical readers, but are not required for an understanding of the body of the book. This book is intended for an audience ranging from interested lay readers to professional researchers studying the scientific, technical, political, and cultural development of a new science, and how it changed the course of 20th century astronomy.
Astronomy, Observations and Techniques  History and Philosophical Foundations of Physics  History of Science  Philosophical Foundations of Physics and Astronomy  Radio Astronomy in the USA  NRAO  Radio astronomers  SETI  Search for extraterrestrial intelligence  Radio astronomy politics and culture  Radio telescope construction  open access  Astronomy, space & time  History of science
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More than a century after the beginning of the quantum revolution, historians continue to explore new facets in the history of quantum physics, and to reexamine some of its betterknown aspects. The thirteen papers collected in this volume, by authors from five continents, present central trends in the current study of quantum physics within its theoretical, experimental, philosophical, technological and social contexts. They discuss developments from the late nineteenth to the early twentyfirst century and go beyond the traditional focus on Europe and North America to include China and Japan, and beyond the Heisenbergs and Diracs to reveal the role of actors who hitherto have played only a marginal role in historical account, but left their mark on the development of quantum physics. Also a wider array of subdisciplines comes into view, from optics to quantum gravity through quantum electrodynamics, from atomic and nuclear to condense matter physics and foundations of physics. Moreover, the volume shows that fields such as dispersion, physical chemistry and solid state physics should not be seen merely as areas of applications of ideas that evolved in other contexts, but should be regarded as birthplaces of important theoretical insights. The perspective of the papers ranges from local histories to global discussions, from conceptual changes via the role of experimentation to interactions with social and technological forces and to the interpretation of the theory.
MPRL  Edition Open Access  history of quantum physics  foundations of quantum physics  historical epistemology  old quantum theory  quantum mechanics
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This book features previously unpublished innovative essays on early Chinese chronology, astronomy, and historiography by the late David S. Nivison (19232014). Nivison was instrumental in developing early China Studies in the United States and is wellknown for revising the date of the Zhou conquest of Shang and for his theory that Western Zhou kings employed two calendars.
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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the bigdata analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum manybody physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for nonspecialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.
Physics  Physics  Quantum physics  Quantum optics  Statistical physics  Machine learning  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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When physicists began to explore the world of atoms more precisely, as they endeavoured to understand its structure and the laws governing its behaviour, they soon encountered serious difficulties. Our intuitive concepts, based on our daily experience of the macroscopic world around us, proved to be completely erroneous on the atomic scale; the atom was incomprehensible within the framework of classical physics. In order to uncover these new mysteries, after a great deal of trial and error, e...
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With this graduatelevel primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field.In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the nonobservation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.
elementary particles  quantum field theory  string theory
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the KochenSpecker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the KadisonSinger conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.
Quantum physics  Mathematical physics  Matrix theory  Algebra
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This book summarizes the science to be carried out by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major groundbased gammaray observatory that will be constructed over the next six to eight years. The major scientific themes, as well as core program of key science projects, have been developed by the CTA Consortium, a collaboration of scientists from many institutions worldwide.CTA will be the major facility in highenergy and very highenergy photon astronomy over the next decade and beyond. CTA will have capabilities well beyond past and present observatories. Thus, CTA's science program is expected to be rich and broad and will complement other major multiwavelength and multimessenger facilities. This book is intended to be the primary resource for the science case for CTA and it thus will be of great interest to the broader physics and astronomy communities. The electronic version (ebook) is available in open access.
Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA)  Cherenkov Telescopes  Gamma Rays  Astrophysics  Astronomy  Astroparticle Physics  Dark Matter  Multiwavelength  Multimessenger
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This first open access volume of the handbook series contains articles on the standard model of particle physics, both from the theoretical and experimental perspective. It also covers related topics, such as heavyion physics, neutrino physics and searches for new physics beyond the standard model. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Quantum Field Theories, String Theory  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Nuclear Physics  Accelerator Physics  Theoretical, Mathematical and Computational Physics  Standard Model of particle physics  High energy physics handbook  Collider physics  Fundamental particles and forces  HEP reference work  experimental particle physics  LandoltBoernstein elementary particles  accelerator physics experiments  physics of particle detectors  Open Access  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Particle & highenergy physics  Statistical physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc
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