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National Reconviction Statistics and Studies in Europe = Nationale Rückfallstatistiken und -untersuchungen in Europa

Authors: ---
Book Series: Göttinger Studien zu den Kriminalwissenschaften ISBN: 9783863951870 Year: Pages: 249 DOI: 10.17875/gup2014-791 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-03-10 11:01:10
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Recidivism belongs to the main categories of criminology, crime policy and criminal justice. If the target of preventing offenders from reoffending is taken seriously crime policy should be measured by success of certain penal sanctions in terms of relapses. Also institutions that deal directly with crime and offenders need to get basic information on the consequences of their actions; particularly general knowledge about offender groups at risk of reoffending. All these are reasons why representative recidivism studies are needed. Meanwhile a lot of European countries gather systematic and comprehensive information on recidivism, periodically and on a national level. This volume presents an exemplary collection of such endeavors: Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Switzerland and a comparative study of England and Wales, the Netherlands and Scotland.

The Codes of the Street in Risky Neighborhoods

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783030162870 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-16287-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:09
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This book presents a comparative look at the norms and attitudes related to youth violence. It aims to present a perspective outside of the typical Western context, through case studies comparing a developed / Western democracy (Germany), a country with a history of institutionalized violence (South Africa), and an emerging democracy that has experienced heavy terrorism (Pakistan). Building on earlier works, the research presented in this innovative volume provides new insights into the sociocultural context for shaping both young people's tolerance of and involvement in violence, depending on their environment. This volume covers: Research on interpersonal violence. Thorough review of the contribution of research on gangs, violence, neighborhoods and community. Analyses on violence-related norms of male juveniles (ages 16-21 years old) living in high-risk urban neighborhoods. Intense discussion of the concept of street code and its use. Application of street code concept to contexts outside the US. An integrating chapter focused on where the street code exists, and how it is modified or interpreted by young men. With a foreword by Jeffrey Ian Ross, this book aims to provide a broader context for research. It does so via a rigorous comparative methodology, presenting a framework that may be applied to future studies. This open access book will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, demography, psychology, and public health.

Keywords

Criminology --- Violence --- Crime

Droits et voix / Rights and Voices : La Criminologie à l’université d’Ottawa / Criminology at the University of Ottawa

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782760326972 Language: English
Publisher: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:45
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This volume commemorates the 40th anniversary of the University of Ottawa’s Department of Criminology, founded in 1968. It relates the history of the department from its origins to today, focusing on the theoretical debates that have influenced its critical and self reflexive approach to criminology. The contributions to this volume continue in that vein by questioning the traditional perspective of criminology on a variety of topics including police studies, mental health, political violence, suicide, and crime prevention. Rights and Voices reveals the significant role that the University of Ottawa has played in redefining criminology to advocate activism, social justice, and compassion.

Keywords

criminology --- law --- social justice

Chapter 5: 'Target Suitability and the Crime Drop' from book: The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781137391322 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.1057/9781137391322_5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-21 17:12:36
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This chapter is open access under a CC BY license. It is from The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory, edited by Martin A. Andresen and Graham Farrell. The full volume provides a unique collection of essays in honour of the work of Marcus Felson and his notable contribution to routine activity theory, environmental criminology and the discipline more broadly.

Luminol Theory

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ISBN: 9781947447127 9781947447134 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0177.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:33
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Representations of forensic procedures saturate popular culture in both fiction and true crime. One of the most striking forensic tools used in these narratives is the chemical luminol, so named because it glows an eerie greenish-blue when it comes into contact with the tiniest drops of human blood. Luminol is a deeply ambivalent object: it is both a tool of the police, historically abused and misappropriated, and yet it offers hope to families of victims by allowing hidden crimes to surface. Forensic enquiry can exonerate those falsely accused of crimes, and yet the rise of forensic science is synonymous with the development of the deeply racist ‘science’ of eugenics. Luminol Theory investigates the possibility of using a tool of the state in subversive, or radical, ways. By introducing luminol as an agent of forensic inquiry, Luminol Theory approaches the exploratory stages that a crime scene investigation might take, exploring experimental literature as though these texts were ‘crime scenes’ in order to discover what this deeply strange object can tell us about crime, death, and history, to make visible violent crimes, and to offer a tangible encounter with death and finitude. At the luminol-drenched crime scene, flashes of illumination throw up words, sentences, and fragments that offer luminous, strange glimpses, bobbing up from below their polished surfaces. When luminol shines its light, it reveals, it is magical, it is prescient, and it has a nasty allure

The Culture of Capital Punishment in Japan

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Book Series: Palgrave Advances in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Asia ISBN: 9783030320867 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-32086-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:19

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This open access book provides a comparative perspective on capital punishment in Japan and the United States. Alongside the US, Japan is one of only a few developed democracies in the world which retains capital punishment and continues to carry out executions on a regular basis. There are some similarities between the two systems of capital punishment but there are also many striking differences. These include differences in capital jurisprudence, execution method, the nature and extent of secrecy surrounding death penalty deliberations and executions, institutional capacities to prevent and discover wrongful convictions, orientations to lay participation and to victim participation, and orientations to “democracy” and governance. Johnson also explores several fundamental issues about the ultimate criminal penalty, such as the proper role of citizen preferences in governing a system of punishment and the relevance of the feelings of victims and survivors.;

Men's Experiences of Violence in Intimate Relationships

Authors: ---
Book Series: Palgrave Studies in Victims and Victimology ISBN: 9783030039943 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-03994-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Gender Studies --- Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:06
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This open access book draws on a broad study on violence against men, from both male and female partners in Norway, to contribute to the research on intimate partner violence. It identifies similarities in men's experiences and backgrounds, including in their perceptions of their own victimisation. Marianne Inez Lien and Jørgen Lorentzen argue that the traditional gender power model should be modified and supplemented, and propose that we consider violence in terms of psychological supremacy, rather than in terms of femininity and masculinity. Men's Experiences of Violence in Intimate Relationships will appeal to students and scholars across a range of areas including criminology, sociology and family violence, and gender studies.

Chapter 9: 'Crowd Spatial Patterns at Bus Stops: Security Implications and Effects of Warning Messages' from book: Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781137556363 Year: Pages: 23 DOI: 10.1057/9781137457653_9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-18 11:42:04
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This is a chapter from Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An Interdisciplinary Approach edited by Vania Ceccato and Andrew Newton. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. As other chapters in Safety and Security in Transit Environments assert, crimes such as pickpocketing can concentrate near bus stops, and crowding and congestion is a factor that heightens this risk. But to target interventions effectively, it is useful to determine what local-level interactions characterise this crowding behaviour. This paper aims to provide a first step to using data collected from laboratory experiments to address questions from crime and transport research. The experiment considered differences in interpersonal distances to further analyse crowding behaviour to attain further insight that could narrow the focus of possible interventions. Audio warnings are examined as a possible solution, and findings show that crowding peaks when passengers board the bus, and audio messages may be one approach for addressing this. To conclude, implications of identifying boarding as a problem area, and the effectiveness of warning messages as a situational crime prevention tool are discussed.

Human Rights in Child Protection

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319948003 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-94800-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social and Public Welfare --- Social Sciences --- Political Science --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:14
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This open access book critically explores what child protection policy and professional practice would mean if practice was grounded in human rights standards. This book inspires a new direction in child protection research – one that critically assesses child protection policy and professional practice with regard to human rights in general, and the rights of the child in particular. Each chapter author seeks to approach the rights of the child from their own academic field of interest and through a comparative lens, making the research relevant across nation-state practices. The book is split into five parts to focus on the most important aspects of child protection. The first part explains the origins, aim, and scope of the book; the second part explores aspects of professionalism and organization through law and policy; and the third part discusses several key issues in child protection and professional practice in depth. The fourth part discusses selected areas of importance to child protection practices (low-impact in-house measures, public care in residential care and foster care respectively) and the fifth part provides an analytical summary of the book. Overall, it contributes to the present need for a more comprehensive academic debate regarding the rights of the child, and the supranational perspective this brings to child protection policy and practice across and within nation-states.

Business and the Risk of Crime in China

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781921862540 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_458836 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
License: ANU Press

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The book analyses the results of a large scale victimisation survey that was conducted in 2005-06 with businesses in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi’an. It also provides comprehensive background materials on crime and the criminal justice system in China. The survey, which measured common and non-conventional crime such as fraud, IP theft and corruption, is important because few crime victim surveys have been conducted with Chinese populations and it provides an understanding of some dimensions of crime in non-western societies. In addition, China is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and it attracts a great amount of foreign investment; however, corruption and economic crimes are perceived by some investors as significant obstacles to good business practices. Key policy implications of the survey are discussed.

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