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Development of optical methods for real-time whole-brain functional imaging of zebrafish neuronal activity

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Book Series: Premio Tesi di Dottorato ISSN: 26128020 ISBN: 9788855180702 Year: Volume: 85 Pages: 200 DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-070-2
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Anatomy --- Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-10 16:25:57
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Each one of us in his life has, at least once, smelled the scent of roses, read one canto of Dante’s Commedia or listened to the sound of the sea from a shell. All of this is possible thanks to the astonishing capabilities of an organ, such as the brain, that allows us to collect and organize perceptions coming from sensory organs and to produce behavioural responses accordingly. Studying an operating brain in a non-invasive way is extremely difficult in mammals, and particularly in humans. In the last decade, a small teleost fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been making its way into the field of neurosciences. The brain of a larval zebrafish is made up of 'only' 100000 neurons and it’s completely transparent, making it possible to optically access it. Here, taking advantage of the best of currently available technology, we devised optical solutions to investigate the dynamics of neuronal activity throughout the entire brain of zebrafish larvae.

The world according to zebrafish: How neural circuits generate behaviour

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193288 Year: Pages: 367 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-328-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Understanding how the brain functions is one of the most ambitious current scientific goals. This challenge will only be accomplish by a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, molecular biology, optics, ethology, neurobiology and mathematics and using tractable model systems. The zebrafish larva is a transparent genetically tractable small vertebrate, ideal for the combination state-of-the- art imaging techniques (e.g. two-photon scanning microscopy, single-plane illumination microscopy, spatial light modulator microscopy and lightfield microscopy), bioluminiscence and optogenetics to monitor and manipulate neuronal activity from single specific neurons up to the entire brain, in an intact behaving organism. Furthermore, the zebrafish model offers large and increasing collection of mutant and transgenic lines modelling human brain diseases. With these advantages in hand, the zebrafish larva became in the recent years, a novel animal model to study neuronal circuits and behaviour, taking us closer than ever before to understand how the brain controls behaviour.

Macromolecular Structure Underlying Recognition in Innate Immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455270 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-527-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Immune molecules have evolved to distinguish “self “molecules from “non-self”, “altered self” and “danger” molecules. Recognition is mediated via interactions between pattern recognition receptor molecules (PPRs) and their ligands, which include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between amino acid residues on the PPRs and uncharged or charged groups on amino acid residues, sugar rings or DNA/RNA molecules. Recognition in innate immunity range from cases (C1q, mannin-binding protein etc) where recognition is orchestrated by interaction between many ligands with one receptor molecule, and density of interaction is necessary for strong specific recognition, distinct from weak non-specific binding, and cases such as TLRs and NLRs where recognition involves complexation of single receptor and ligand, followed by oligomerisation of the receptor molecule. The majority of PPR molecules bind and recognise a wide variety of ligands, e.g TLR4 recognises LPS (gram negative bacteria), Lipotechoic acid (gram positive bacteria), heat shock protein hsp60, respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein etc, molecules that are structurally dissimilar to each other. This indicates considerable flexibility in their binding domains (amino acid residue variations) and modes (hydrophobic and charged, direct or mediated via an adaptor molecule). However, in many cases there is a dearth of structural and molecular data available, required to delineate the mechanism of ligand binding underlining recognition in pathogen receptors in innate immunity. Insights into requirements of conformation, charge, surface etc in the recognition and function of innate immunity receptors and their activation pathways, based on current data can suggest valuable avenues for future work.

Molecular, Cellular and Model Organism Approaches for Understanding the Basis of Neurological Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451739 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-173-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has resulted in a remarkable increase our understanding of human and animal neurological disorders through the identification of disease causing or protective sequence variants. However, in many cases, robust disease models are required to understand how changes at the DNA, RNA or protein level affect neuronal and synaptic function, or key signalling pathways. In turn, these models may enable understanding of key disease processes and the identification of new targets for the medicines of the future. This e-book contains original research papers and reviews that highlight either the impact of next-generation sequencing in the understanding of neurological disorders, or utilise molecular, cellular, and whole-organism models to validate disease-causing or protective sequence variants.

Marine Natural Products and Obesity

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ISBN: 9783039211913 9783039211920 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been prolific in the production of bioactive compounds for many diseases, e.g., cancer, and promise to be an excellent source for natural-derived molecules and novel nutraceuticals. Bioactive compounds with beneficial activities towards obesity have been described from diverse marine organism including marine algae, bacteria, sponges, fungi, crustaceans or fish. This Special Issue will highlight the progress in the following topics: Bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia) from marine organisms; the isolation of novel compounds, the bioactivity screening of marine organisms and the elucidation of molecular mode of action of marine bioactive compounds.

Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs

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ISBN: 9783039214631 9783039214648 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-464-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. Studies of tumor biology have not only provided insights into the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, but also led to discovery of molecules that have been developed into cancer biomarkers and targets. Multi-platforms for molecular characterization of tumors using next-generation genomic sequencing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and blood-based biopsies have greatly expanded the portfolio of potential biomarkers and targets. These cancer biomarkers have been developed for diagnosis, early detection, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response. The molecular targets have been exploited for anti-cancer therapy and delivery of therapeutic agents. This Special Issue of Biomedicines focuses on recent advances in the discovery, characterization, translation, and clinical application of cancer biomarkers and targets in malignant diseases of the digestive system. The goal is to stimulate basic and translational research and clinical collaboration in this exciting field with the hope of developing strategies for prevention and early detection/diagnosis of cancer in digestive organs, and improving therapeutic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with these malignant diseases.

Keywords

colorectal cancer --- intestinal disorder --- intestinal tumors --- zebrafish --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- immunotherapy --- biomarkers --- Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) --- gastric carcinoma --- molecular profiling --- precision therapy --- pembrolizumab --- predictive biomarkers --- ramucirumab --- The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) --- therapeutic targets --- trastuzumab --- biliary tract carcinoma --- chemotherapy --- clinical trial --- colorectal carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- gastrointestinal oncology --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunotherapy --- pancreatic carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- Liver transplantation --- liver graft injury --- intragraft gene expression profiles --- cell adhesion molecules --- CD274 --- HFE --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunohistochemistry --- molecular profiling --- next-generation sequencing --- precision medicine --- predictive biomarkers --- gastrointestinal oncology --- pancreatic carcinoma --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- biliary tract carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- colorectal carcinoma --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- liver transplant --- targeted therapy --- psychosocial support --- G protein–coupled receptors --- cholecystokinin --- gastrin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- bombesin --- neurokinin --- neurotensin --- somatostatin --- circulating tumor cells --- colorectal carcinoma --- CAM invasion assay --- phenotypic mosaics --- tumor progenitor --- biomarker --- gastrointestinal malignancies --- immunotherapy --- n/a

Microfluidics for Cells and Other Organisms

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ISBN: 9783039215621 9783039215638 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-563-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Microfluidics-based devices play an important role in creating realistic microenvironments in which cell cultures can thrive. They can, for example, be used to monitor drug toxicity and perform medical diagnostics, and be in a static-, perfusion- or droplet-based device. They can also be used to study cell-cell, cell-matrix or cell-surface interactions. Cells can be either single cells, 3D cell cultures or co-cultures. Other organisms could include bacteria, zebra fish embryo, C. elegans, to name a few.

Disease and the Hippo Pathway: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

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ISBN: 9783039217762 9783039217779 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-777-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Hippo pathway is a highly dynamic cellular signaling nexus that plays central roles in multiple cell types and regulates regeneration, metabolism, and development. The Hippo pathway integrates mechanotransduction, cell polarity, inflammation, and numerous types of paracrine signaling. If not tightly regulated, dysregulated Hippo pathway signaling drives the onset and progression of a range of diseases, including fibrosis and cancer. The molecular understanding of the Hippo pathway is rapidly evolving. This Special Issue contains ten articles contributed by established and up-and-coming Hippo pathway experts that, as a whole, provides an up-to-date overview of how dysregulated Hippo pathway activity is a common driver of specific diseases. The articles have a particular focus on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause the Hippo pathway to go awry, and especially how this drives disease. The articles analyze disease-specific as well as common themes, which provides valuable insights into the fundamental molecular mechanisms in the dysfunctioning Hippo pathway, and thereby offer practical insights into potential future therapeutic intervention strategies.

Natural Products and Drug Discovery

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ISBN: 9783039287468 / 9783039287475 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-747-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Natural products hold a prominent position in the current discovery and development of drugs and have diverse indications for both human and animal health. Plants, in particular, play a leading role as a source of specialized metabolites with medical effects. Other organisms, such as marine and terrestrial animals and microorganisms, produce very important drug candidate molecules. Specialized metabolites from these varied natural sources can be used directly as bioactive compounds or drug precursors. In addition, due to their broad chemical diversity, they can act as drug prototypes and/or be used as pharmacological tools for different targets. Some examples of natural metabolites that have been developed into useful medical drug are cardiotonic digoxin from Digitalis sp., antimalarial artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anti-cancer taxol from Taxus sp., or podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum, which served as a synthetic model for the anti-cancer etoposide. The study of natural products is still attracting great scientific attention and their current importance, as a valuable lead for drug discovery, is undebatable. I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as survey articles, that give the readers of Molecules **MOLECULES NEEDS TO BE ITALICIZED** updated and new perspectives on natural products in drug discovery, including but not limited to natural sources, identification and separation of bioactive phytochemicals, standardization, new biological targets, pre-clinical and clinical trials, pharmacological effects/side effects, and bioassays.

Keywords

cytotoxicity-guided --- phenolic derivatives --- Dryopteris fragrans --- chemical derivatization --- immuno-regulation activity --- Imperata cylindrica --- HPLC --- ESI-MS/MS --- growth inhibitory activity --- cancer --- cardamonin --- antinociceptive --- TRPV1 --- glutamate --- opioid --- siphonous green algae --- sulfated coumarins --- Dasycladus vermicularis --- isolation and quantification --- Orobanche s.l. --- Orobanchaceae --- Lamiales --- natural products --- secondary metabolites --- phenylpropanoid glycosides --- phenylethanoid glycosides --- bioactivities of natural products --- chemosystematics --- FSE --- T2DM --- GLUT4 --- Ca2+ --- L6 cell --- marine peptides --- proliferation --- migration --- angiogenesis --- zebrafish --- antioxidant activity --- flavonoids --- isoflavones --- phenolics --- proanthocyanidins --- Trifolium --- Leea indica --- HPLC-ESI-microTOF-Q-MS/MS --- phenolics --- dihydrochalcones --- Humulus lupulus --- prenylated phenolic compounds --- antimicrobial agents --- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus --- Leishmania mexicana mexicana --- Trypanosoma brucei brucei --- Astragalus boeticus L. --- spectroscopic analysis --- cytotoxic activity --- human colon cancer cell lines --- acetylated astragalosides --- Fabaceae --- aging --- cancer --- cardiovascular disease --- dementia --- diabetes --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- Harpagophytum procumbens --- devil’s claw --- harpagoside --- spagyric tincture --- antioxidant activity --- Cleistocalyx operculatus --- 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone (DMC) --- pPancreatic cancer --- PANC-1 --- ACE inhibitory peptide --- antihypertensive --- bioactive peptides --- hypertension --- marine resources --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- antimicrobial resistance --- synergy --- Phyllanthus orbicularis --- C-glycoside --- flavonoid --- natural products --- traditional medicine --- Cuba --- Phyllanthus chamacristoides --- chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- NMR --- circular dichroism --- stereochemistry --- Fideloside --- cytokines --- anti-inflammatory activity --- metabolomics --- multivariate data analysis --- molecular network --- Bacopa monnieri --- LC-MS --- diabetic neuropathy --- neuropathic pain --- glucosinolates --- Eruca sativa --- glucoerucin --- H2S --- Kv7 potassium channels --- artemisinin --- Physcomitrella patens --- sesquiterpenoids --- malaria --- biotechnology --- ketamine --- psychosis --- cerebellum --- celastrol --- oxidative stress --- NADPH oxidases --- n/a

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