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Modelling the plastic deformation of iron

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449688 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: XII, 146 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032216 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The 1/2<111> screw dislocations in bcc iron are studied by atomistic simulations. An analytical yield criterion captures correctly the non-Schmid plastic behavior. A model Peierls potential develops a link between the atomistic modeling at 0 K and the thermally activated dislocation motion. All predicted features agree well with experimental observations. This work establishes a consistent bottom-up model that provides an insight into the microscopic origins of the plastic behavior of bcc iron.

Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Genomic Approaches for Improvement of Understudied Grasses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452422 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-242-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Grasses are diverse, spanning native prairies to high-yielding grain cropping systems. They are valued for their beauty and useful for soil stabilization, pollution mitigation, biofuel production, nutritional value, and forage quality; grasses encompass the most important grain crops in the world. There are thousands of distinct grass species and many have promiscuous hybridization patterns, blurring species boundaries. Resources for advancing the science and knowledgebase of individual grass species or their unique characteristics varies, often proportional to their perceived value to society. For many grasses, limited genetic information hinders research progress. Presented in this research topic is a brief snapshot of creative efforts to apply modern genomics research methodologies to the study of several minor grass species.

Environmental and Management Factor Contributions to Maize Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976127 / 9783038976134 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-613-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-12 11:50:48
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Agricultural production must increase substantially to meet the increasing per capita demand for food, feed, fuel, and fiber of a rising human census. The amount of arable land is limited due to soil type, weather, and ecosystem considerations; therefore, it is necessary to increase yields on current fields. To obtain the greatest maize (Zea mays L.) yield, a farmer needs to nurture the crop as much as possible. Weather and nitrogen availability are well- known as two factors that normally have the greatest influence on maize yields and grain quality. Some management factors a producer may need to consider while growing a maize crop are mineral fertilization, genotype, plant population, and protection from insects and diseases. Additionally, there are numerous biological and chemical compounds that can stimulate plant growth, such as in-furrow mixes and foliar fungicides. Field management also plays a role in final grain yield, including crop rotation, tillage, soil pH and nutrient levels, weed control, and drainage.This Special Issue Book focuses on weather, soil, and other maize crop management factors and their relative independent and/or interactive influence on maize growth and yield.]

Genetics and Breeding for Productivity Traits in Forage and Bioenergy Grasses

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ISBN: 9783038425427 9783038425434 Year: Pages: VIII, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:46:48
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The Special Issue to provide a forum for contemporary studies of the genetics, genomics and phenomics of productivity traits in forage and bioenergy grasses, along with the application of such data to breeding practices and cultivar development.

Recent Advances in Remote Sensing for Crop Growth Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422266 9783038422273 Year: Pages: XX, 386 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-19 08:32:15
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This special issue book gathers sixteen papers focusing on the application of remote sensing techniques to crop growth monitoring. The studies feature multi-scale and multi-source remotely sensed data, a combination of empirical and physical approaches, and a range of topics on crop growth parameters estimation and crop mapping. It is recommended to graduate students, professors, scientists and engineers who have broad interests in the agricultural applications of remote sensing.

Quality and Production of Forage

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ISBN: 9783039216741 / 9783039216758 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-675-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book ""Quality and Production of Forage"" is intended to keep readers updatedon the developments occurring in this field. As it is apparent that livestockanimals are important throughout the world because of the meat, milk and eggthey produce, knowledge about the forages available to animals must also beconsidered for increased production, quality and efficiency. This book providesinformation that readers will find considerably invaluable about forage feeds, suchas grass, legumes, and straw. The book is composed of ten papers, focusing on awide range of research activities and topics that feature the following concepts offorage: the effect of conservation method on forage protein value; Microbial thecomposition and mycotoxin content in forage; genetic diversity of forages; timelysowing to maximize yield for both grain and biomass; ensiling treatments onforage quality; the qualitative characteristics of different accessions of new foragespecies; forage policy influencing feed costs; feeding forage on animal health;high-protein tropical forages as alternative sources for poultry; impact of foragesin poultry diet and significance of forages in sustainable poultry productionsystems. This book will be an invaluable reference for students and professionalsin agricultural science and grassland and animal husbandry researches.

Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976547 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-655-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield that was published in Agronomy

Keywords

soil organic matter --- soil biota --- soil acidity --- soil erosion --- fertilizer management --- site-specific nutrient management --- balanced use of fertilizers --- integrated nutrient management --- agronomic response --- calcium --- Copper --- NPK amendments --- Value Cost Ratio --- Zinc --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- nitrate assimilation --- nitrate reductase activity --- maize --- nitrate --- ammonia --- NADH --- NADH-dehydrogenase --- Complex I --- site-specific K management --- soil K supply --- maize yield response to K --- maize crop manager --- nutrient expert for maize --- durum wheat --- mineral N --- organic N --- S fertilization --- grain quality --- grain yield --- phosphorous --- potassium --- corn–soybean rotation --- management --- production system --- organic farming --- conventional farming --- organic nutrients --- chemical fertilizers --- global food demand --- agroforestry system --- evergreen agriculture --- biofertilizer --- Bacillus pumilus --- growth promotion --- N fertilizer --- rice --- yield --- green manure --- nitrogen uptake --- Orychophragmus violaceus L. --- soil nitrogen pools --- grain yield --- Zea mays L. --- hybrid rice --- K use efficiency --- potassium --- saline tract --- soil N supply --- soil N mineralization --- N fertilization --- potentially mineralizable N --- humid Mediterranean climate --- conservation agriculture --- NUE --- nitrogen recovery efficiency --- nitrogen physiological recovery --- wheat yields --- Agrotain® urea --- rice-wheat system --- organic farming --- forage legume --- long-term productivity --- soil health --- economics --- integrated nutrient management --- rice --- wheat --- yield --- net returns --- soil health --- sustainability

Agricultural Irrigation

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ISBN: 9783039219223 / 9783039219230 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-923-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Agriculture is certainly the most important food supplier while it globally accounts for more than 70% of water used and contributes significantly to water pollution. Irrigated agriculture is facing rising competition worldwide for access to reliable, low cost, and high-quality water resources. However, irrigation as the major tool and determinant of affecting agricultural productivity and environmental resources plays a critical role in food security and environment sustainability. Innovative irrigation technologies and practices may enhance agricultural water efficiency and production, in the meantime decrease the water demand and quality issues. I am very pleased to invite you to submit manuscripts in agricultural irrigation which assess current challenges and offer improvement approaches and opportunities for future irrigation.

Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology

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ISBN: 9783039213337 / 9783039213344 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-334-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Rheology, defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches. The study of rheology includes both experimental and computational methods, which are not mutually exclusive. Its practical importance embraces many processes, from daily life, like preparing mayonnaise or spread an ointment or shampooing, to industrial processes like polymer processing and oil extraction, among several others. Practical applications include also formulations and product development. This Special Issue aims to present the latest advances in the fields of experimental and computational rheology applied to the most diverse classes of materials (foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, polymers and biopolymers, multiphasic systems and composites) and processes. This Special Issue will comprise, not only original research papers, but also review articles.

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