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Water Societies and Technologies from the Past and Present

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ISBN: 9781911576693 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.14324/111.978191157693 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Anthropology --- Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:12
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Today our societies face great challenges with water, in terms of both quantity and quality, but many of these challenges have already existed in the past. Focusing on Asia, Water Societies and Technologies from the Past and Present seeks to highlight the issues that emerge or re-emerge across different societies and periods, and asks what they can tell us about water sustainability. Incorporating cutting-edge research and pioneering field surveys on past and present water management practices, the interdisciplinary contributors together identify how societies managed water resource challenges and utilised water in ways that allowed them to evolve, persist, or drastically alter their environment. The case studies, from different periods, ancient and modern, and from different regions, including Egypt, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Southwest United States, the Indus Basin, the Yangtze River, the Mesopotamian floodplain, the early Islamic city of Sultan Kala in Turkmenistan, and ancient Korea, offer crucial empirical data to readers interested in comparing the dynamics of water management practices across time and space, and to those who wish to understand water-related issues through conceptual and quantitative models of water use. The case studies also challenge classical theories on water management and social evolution, examine and establish the deep historical roots and ecological foundations of water sustainability issues, and contribute new grounds for innovations in sustainable urban planning and ecological resilience.

Agricultural Irrigation

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ISBN: 9783039219223 9783039219230 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-923-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Agriculture is certainly the most important food supplier while it globally accounts for more than 70% of water used and contributes significantly to water pollution. Irrigated agriculture is facing rising competition worldwide for access to reliable, low cost, and high-quality water resources. However, irrigation as the major tool and determinant of affecting agricultural productivity and environmental resources plays a critical role in food security and environment sustainability. Innovative irrigation technologies and practices may enhance agricultural water efficiency and production, in the meantime decrease the water demand and quality issues. I am very pleased to invite you to submit manuscripts in agricultural irrigation which assess current challenges and offer improvement approaches and opportunities for future irrigation.

Enhancing Security, Sustainability and Resilience in Energy, Food and Water

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ISBN: 9783039282302 9783039282319 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-231-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book looks at the ways that energy, food, and water help to create connections between sustainability and security. The concept of security is in our current societies increasingly connected with sustainability, which seeks to ensure that we as humans are able to live and prosper on this planet now and in the future. The concepts of energy security, food security, and water security—used separately or together—manifest the burgeoning linkages between security and sustainability. This book brings together ten scientific articles that look at different aspects of security, sustainability, and resilience with an emphasis on energy, food, and/or water in the context of Finland and Europe. Together, the articles portray a rich picture on the diverse linkages between both energy, food, and water, and between security and sustainability. In sum, the articles and related preface conclude that ensuring sustainable security—or secure sustainability—requires systemic, structured processes that link the policies and actors in these two important but still distant fields.

Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food

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ISBN: 9783039211654 9783039211661 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In a worldwide context of ever-growing competition for water and land, climate change, droughts and man-made water scarcity, and less-participatory water governance, agriculture faces the great challenge of producing enough food for a continually increasing population. In this line, this book provides a broad overview of innovation issues in the complex water–agriculture–food nexus, thus also relative to their interconnections and dependences. Issues refer to different spatial scales, from the field or the farm to the irrigation system or the river basin. Multidisciplinary approaches are used when analyzing the relationships between water, agriculture, and food security. The covered issues are quite diverse and include: innovation in crop evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and modeling; updates in research relative to crop water use and saving; irrigation scheduling and systems design; simulation models to support water and agricultural decisions; issues to cope with water scarcity and climate change; advances in water resource quality and sustainable uses; new tools for mapping and use of remote sensing information; and fostering a participative and inclusive governance of water for food security and population welfare. This book brings together a variety of contributions by leading international experts, professionals, and scholars in those diverse fields. It represents a major synthesis and state-of-the-art on various subjects, thus providing a valuable and updated resource for all researchers, professionals, policymakers, and post-graduate students interested in the complex world of the water–agriculture–food nexus.

Keywords

drought classes --- Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) --- Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) --- North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) --- log-linear modeling --- persistence --- surface irrigation modelling --- precise land levelling --- irrigation systems design --- beneficial water use --- decision support systems (DSS) --- inflow rates --- cut-off time --- crop water requirements --- latent heat flux --- remote sensing --- olive orchard --- spatial variability --- agriculture --- impact --- measures --- nitrogen --- Sensitive Zones --- Tagus River Basin --- Vulnerable Zones --- basal crop coefficients --- crop coefficient curves --- crop transpiration --- Kcb from ground cover --- SIMDualKc model --- soil evaporation --- soil moisture --- soil temperature --- soil nutrient --- crop yield --- Corn --- Black soil --- deficit irrigation --- Fiesta grapes --- drip irrigation --- dried on the vine --- sustained deficit irrigation --- regulated deficit irrigation --- water–energy–food nexus --- policy-making --- stakeholder engagement --- fuzzy cognitive maps --- Spain --- Andalusia --- calibration --- irrigation district --- evapotranspiration --- crop growth --- validation --- Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. --- crop transpiration --- soil evaporation --- drip and basin irrigation --- deficit irrigation --- reform --- Participatory Irrigation Management --- Transfer --- water users association --- biomass --- crop transpiration --- direct forcing --- leaf area index --- soil evaporation --- soil temperature --- soil water storage depletion --- root growth --- maize yield --- semi-arid region --- actual evapotranspiration --- Pampa biome --- eddy covariance --- evaporative fraction --- hysteresis loops --- dry drainage system --- water and salt balance --- groundwater --- evaporation --- salinity --- irrigation scheduling --- wheat --- soil water balance --- new technologies --- smartphone application --- reference evapotranspiration --- local advection --- aridity effects --- satellite observations --- Evapotranspiration --- Irrigation --- Density coefficient --- Dual crop coefficients --- Row crops --- water and land management --- water users’ organization --- water balance --- supply–demand balance model --- organizational analysis --- participatory management --- pressurized irrigation systems --- on-demand operation --- perturbation --- unsteady flow --- hydrant risk indicator --- relative pressure exceedance --- agricultural intensification --- DPSIR --- nitrogen --- pressures --- policies --- surface water pollution --- water-agriculture-food nexus --- crop water use and evapotranspiration --- irrigation scheduling --- design of irrigation systems --- simulation models --- droughts --- irrigation water governance --- economic and environmental issues

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215140 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

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