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Water Resources in a Variable and Changing Climate

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ISBN: 9783038420835 9783038420828 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-05 14:58:28
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Climate change will bring about significant changes to the capacity of, and the demand on, water resources. The resulting changes include increasing climate variability that is expected to affect hydrologic conditions. The effects of climate variability on various meteorological variables have been extensively observed in many regions around the world. Atmospheric circulation, topography, land use and other regional features modify global changes to produce unique patterns of change at the regional scale. As the future changes to these water resources cannot be measured in the present, hydrological models are critical in the planning required to adapt our water resource management strategies to future climate conditions. Such models include catchment runoff models, reservoir management models, flood prediction models, groundwater recharge and flow models, and crop water balance models. In water-scarce regions such as Australia, urban water systems are particularly vulnerable to rapid population growth and climate change. In the presence of climate change induced uncertainty, urban water systems need to be more resilient and multi-sourced. Decreasing volumetric rainfall trends have an effect on reservoir yield and operation practices. Severe intensity rainfall events can cause failure of drainage system capacity and subsequent urban flood inundation problems. Policy makers, end users and leading researchers need to work together to develop a consistent approach to interpreting the effects of climate variability and change on water resources.This Special Edition includes papers by international experts who have investigated climate change impacts on a variety of systems including irrigation and water markets, land use changes and vegetation growth, lake water levels and quality and sea level rises. These investigations have been conducted in many regions of the world including the USA, China, East Africa, Australia, Taiwan and the Sultanate of Oman.

Governing Integrated Water Resources Management: Mutual Learning and Policy Transfer

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281565 9783039281572 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-157-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has become a global paradigm for the governance of surface, coastal and groundwaters. This Special Issue contains twelve articles related to the transfer of IWRM policy principles. The articles explore three dimensions of transfer—causes, processes, outcomes—and offer a theoretically inspiring, methodologically rich and geographically diverse engagement with IWRM policy transfer around the globe. As such, they can also productively inform a future research agenda on the ‘dimensional’ aspects of IWRM governance. Regarding the causes, the contributions apply, criticise, extend or revise existing approaches to policy transfer in a water governance context, asking why countries adopt IWRM principles and what mechanisms are in place to understand the adoption of these principles in regional or national contexts. When it comes to processes, articles in this Special Issue unpack the process of policy transfer and implementation and explore how IWRM principles travel across borders, levels and scales. Finally, this set of papers looks into the outcomes of IWRM policy transfer and asks what impact IWRM principles, once implemented, gave on domestic water governance, water quality and water supply, and how effective IWRM is at addressing critical water issues in specific countries.

Keywords

dam --- local communities --- lived experiences --- environmental narratives --- Cambodia --- transitions --- water management regimes --- water resource management --- niches --- visions --- agency --- ocean governance --- fisheries management --- ecosystem-based management --- overfishing --- sustainable fishing --- European Union --- Turkey --- Europeanisation --- institutions --- policy transfer --- Water Framework Directive --- drinking water --- agriculture --- EU policy --- governance --- integrated scientific support --- water quality --- nitrates --- pesticides --- environmental policy --- policy coherence --- environmental governance --- integrated catchment management --- catchment --- conservation authorities --- governance --- governmentality --- integrated water resources management (IWRM) --- watershed councils --- Ontario --- Oregon --- Integrated Water Resources Management --- Integrated Urban Water Management --- urban water security --- governance --- Singapore --- Hong Kong --- process tracing --- Water Framework Directive --- policy implementation --- integrated water resources management --- river basin planning --- public participation --- water governance --- scale --- top-down and bottom-up --- estuaries --- governance --- sustainability --- governance models --- integrated water resources management --- IWRM --- Water Framework Directive --- WFD --- participation --- United Kingdom --- England --- water governance --- IWRM --- integrated water resources management --- drivers --- EU water framework directive --- implementation --- coordination --- participation --- Germany --- water governance --- polycentricity --- integrated water resources management --- IWRM --- policy transfer --- water governance --- Water Framework Directive --- learning

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038423454 783038423447 Year: Pages: Pages: X, 246 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-27 09:55:00
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The connections between water, food and energy are currently being discussed more than ever before, thanks to the recently emerged concept of the water–energy–food security nexus. Various organizations and authors have defined and addressed the concept from their own view points: nexus is, indeed in the air.This Special Issue looks at the water–energy–food security nexus in the context of large Asian river basins, with a focus on transboundary rivers shared by several countries. The articles included in the Special Issue analyse what benefits the nexus approach could bring to these kinds of, often quite demanding, settings. And where are the potential pitfalls that call for further development.The thematic areas covered in the Special Issue thus include water resources management; energy planning and policies with an emphasis on hydropower; and food production systems, including fisheries, irrigation and cropland management. Due to its focus on transboundary contexts, the articles also look at the geopolitical, international cooperation and security aspects related to the nexus.The articles of the Special Issue include case studies from relevant transboundary river basins, with a focus on the Mekong River Basin in Southeast Asia as well as the river basins in Central Asia. Articles also include a comparative analysis in several large Asian river basins as well as more theoretical discussions of the water–energy–food security nexus and its linkages to other framings and approaches, such as IWRM and sustainable development.

Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211975 9783039211982 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists from 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and critically so on some islands in the Pacific Ocean), with highly negative effects on coastal groundwater resources, which are widely affected by seawater intrusion. Some improved research methods are proposed in the contributions: using innovative hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical monitoring; assessing impacts of the changing environment on the coastal groundwater resources in terms of quantity and quality; and using modelling, especially to improve management approaches. The scientific research needed to face these challenges must continue to be deployed by different approaches based on the monitoring, modelling and management of groundwater resources. Novel and more efficient methods must be developed to keep up with the accelerating pace of global change.

Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (ET)

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ISBN: 9783039216024 9783039216031 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-603-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the water and energy balances, and the number of remote sensing-based ET products and estimation methods has increased in recent years. Various aspects of remote sensing of ET are reported in the 11 papers published in this book. The major research areas covered by this book include inter-comparison and performance evaluation of widely used one- and two-source energy balance models, a new dual-source model (Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration, SPARSE), and a process-based model (ETMonitor); assessment of multi-source (e.g., remote sensing, reanalysis, and land surface model) ET products; development or improvement of data fusion frameworks to predict continuous daily ET at a high spatial resolution (field-scale or 30 m) by fusing the advanced spaceborne thermal emission reflectance radiometer (ASTER), the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Landsat data; and investigating uncertainties in ET estimates using an ET ensemble composed of several land surface models and diagnostic datasets. The effects of the differences between ET products on water resources and ecosystem management were also investigated. More accurate ET estimates and improved understanding of remotely sensed ET products are crucial for maximizing crop productivity while minimizing water losses and management costs.

Modelling and Management of Irrigation System

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287901 / 9783039287918 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-791-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Irrigation is becoming an activity of precision, where combining information collected from various sources is necessary to optimally manage resources. New management strategies, such as big data techniques, sensors, artificial intelligence, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and new technologies in general, are becoming more relevant every day. As such, modeling techniques, both at the water distribution network and the farm levels, will be essential to gather information from various sources and offer useful recommendations for decision-making processes. In this book, 10 high quality papers were selected that cover a wide range of issues that are relevant to the different aspects related to irrigation management: water source and distribution network, plot irrigation systems, and crop water management.

Climate Variability and Climate Change Impacts on Land Surface, Hydrological Processes and Water Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215072 9783039215089 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-508-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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During the last several decades, Earth´s climate has undergone significant changes due to anthropogenic global warming, and feedbacks to the water cycle. Therefore, persistent efforts are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes and to engage in efficient water management strategies that explicitly consider changing environmental conditions. The twenty-four contributions in this book have broadly addressed topics across four major research areas: (1) Climate and land-use change impacts on hydrological processes, (2) hydrological trends and causality analysis faced in hydrology, (3) hydrological model simulations and predictions, and (4) reviews on water prices and climate extremes. The broad spectrum of international contributions to the Special Issue indicates that climate change impacts on water resources analysis attracts global attention. We hope that the collection of articles presented here can provide scientists, policymakers and stakeholders alike with insights that support sustainable decision-making in the face of climate change and increasingly scarce environmental resources.

Keywords

hydrological drought --- Three Gorges Dam --- GRACE --- compound extremes --- climate change --- multivariate distribution --- quantile regression --- indicator --- PUB --- rainfall-runoff experiments --- distributed hydrological model --- Hydro-Informatic Modelling System (HIMS) --- freshwater availability --- runoff --- simulated rainfall --- plot scale --- litter layer --- topsoil --- karst --- Yellow River Delta --- estuarine wetlands --- spatiotemporal change analysis --- remote sensing --- intra-annual climate change --- variation in percentage of flood-season precipitation --- natural streamflow variation --- contribution and sensitivity analysis --- Yellow River --- highland agricultural field area --- diffuse pollutant discharge --- multiple regression model --- climate change --- jackknife validation --- water security --- water pricing --- sustainable water management --- trends and patterns --- economics --- precipitation --- air temperature --- river discharge --- Mann-Kendall test --- Selenga river basin --- Lake Baikal basin --- Mongolia --- snowfall to precipitation ratio --- WRF model --- arid region --- Xinjiang --- water resources management --- climate change --- LULCC --- Budyko equation --- streamflow --- drought --- climate variability --- land surface change --- runoff --- Budyko framework --- elasticity coefficient --- Weihe River Basin --- flood --- streamflow --- CMIP5 --- climate change --- HEC-RAS --- trend analysis --- precipitation --- temperature --- eco-region --- Ethiopia --- Three Gorges Project --- dam --- runoff changes --- flood control --- Yangtze River --- benefits --- evapotranspiration --- Pan evaporation --- TFPW-MK --- Haihe River Basin --- hydrological simulation --- quantitative analysis --- SWAT model --- land use/cover change --- climate change --- scenario simulation --- Climate variability --- Large-scale climate indices --- Reservoir inflow forecasting --- Ensemble empirical mode decomposition --- Time series model --- Artificial intelligence model --- grid-based --- HRU-based --- SHM --- SWAT --- large scale basin --- climate change --- human activities --- power operations --- cascade joint operation chart --- inter-basin water transfer project --- climate change --- MATOPIBA agricultural frontier --- water security --- hydroclimatic analysis --- water conflicts --- average annual runoff --- runoff map --- hydrological model --- GIS --- DPR Korea --- streamflow reduction --- climate change --- coal mining --- SWCM --- coal mining concentrated watershed --- the Loess Plateau --- hydrology --- land cover --- land use and climate change --- water resources management --- macro scale modeling --- climate variability --- climate change --- land use change --- hydrological processes --- trends --- water management --- model --- predictions

The Challenges of Water Management and Governance in Cities

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211500 9783039211517 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-151-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Global population growth is urban growth and, therefore, most of the water-related challenges and solutions reside in cities. Unless water management and water governance processes are significantly improved within the next decade or so, cities are likely to face serious and prolonged water insecurity, urban floods, and/or heat stress, which may result in social instability and, ultimately, massive migration. Aging water infrastructure, one of the most expensive infrastructures in cities, is a relevant challenge in order to address Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6: clean water and sanitation, SDG 11: sustainable cities and communities, and SDG 13: climate action. The choice of good governance arrangements has important consequences for economic performance, for the well-being of citizens, and for the quality of life in urban areas. The better governance arrangements work in coordinating policies across jurisdictions and policy fields, the better the outcomes. Rapidly-changing global conditions will make future water governance more complex than ever before in human history, and expectations are that water governance and water management will change more during the next 20 years compared to the past 100 years. In this Special Issue of Water, the focus will be on practical concepts and tools for water management and water governance, with a focus on cities.

Keywords

Integrated Water Resources Management --- water management sustainability --- urban resilience --- urban water cycle --- water governance --- water-reuse --- governance capacity --- water management --- water scarcity --- Sponge City --- water ecology --- storm water management --- flood control --- resilience --- rainfall-runoff --- storm water control measure --- SuDS --- urban drainage --- urban landscape --- urban planning --- flood risk management --- flood resilience --- governance strategies --- climate change --- assessment framework --- sustainability assessment --- baseline assessment --- co-design --- stakeholder involvement --- wastewater management --- Cape Town --- City Blueprint Approach --- water governance --- water scarcity --- water sensitive cities --- climate change adaptation --- stormwater reservoir --- Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) --- design rainfall event --- Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) --- coordination --- water supply --- social network analysis --- climate change --- IHP --- intergovernmental --- science and technology --- sustainability --- UNESCO --- water management --- water security --- Urban Water Management Programme --- water governance --- infrastructure --- urban water management --- indicators --- SDGs --- stakeholder participation --- water policy --- rainwater harvesting --- footprint --- lifecycle analysis --- total cost of ownership --- sustainability --- urban water management --- drinking water --- city networks --- climate change --- ICLEI --- Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) --- urban water management --- use-attainment --- social network analysis --- urban planning --- governance --- social infrastructure --- cost of inaction --- urban pluvial flooding --- flood damage assessment --- flood risk --- greenhouse gas emissions --- decentralized water reclamation with resource recovery --- Water-Energy-Food Nexus --- climate change mitigation --- water governance --- urban water management --- resilience --- sustainable development goals

Understanding Game-based Approaches for Improving Sustainable Water Governance: The Potential of Serious Games to Solve Water Problems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039287628 / 9783039287635 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-763-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate knowledge co-creation and social learning. Governance systems are often fragmented, forming a barrier to adequately addressing the myriad of challenges affecting water resources, including climate change, increased urbanized populations, and pollution. Transitions towards sustainable water governance will likely require innovative learning partnerships between public, private, and civil society stakeholders. It is essential that such partnerships involve vertical and horizontal communication of ideas and knowledge, and an enabling and democratic environment characterized by informal and open discourse. There is increasing interest in learning-based transitions. Thus far, much scholarly thinking and, to a lesser degree, empirical research has gone into understanding the potential impact of social learning on multi-stakeholder settings. The question of whether such learning can be supported by forms of serious gaming has hardly been asked. This Special Issue critically explores the potential of serious games to support multi-stakeholder social learning and collaborations in the context of water governance. Serious games may involve simulations of real-world events and processes and are challenge players to solve contemporary societal problems; they, therefore, have a purpose beyond entertainment. They offer a largely untapped potential to support social learning and collaboration by facilitating access to and the exchange of knowledge and information, enhancing stakeholder interactions, empowering a wider audience to participate in decision making, and providing opportunities to test and analyze the outcomes of policies and management solutions. Little is known about how game-based approaches can be used in the context of collaborative water governance to maximize their potential for social learning. While several studies have reported examples of serious games, there is comparably less research about how to assess the impacts of serious games on social learning and transformative change.

Keywords

simulations --- serious games --- Q-method --- integrated water resources management --- policy analysis --- nexus --- participatory modelling --- serious game --- system dynamics --- water-food-land-energy-climate --- active learning --- drinking water --- role-play --- stakeholder collaboration --- Water Safety Plan --- water supply --- serious games --- social simulation --- social learning --- relational practices --- river basin management --- water governance --- multi-party collaboration --- stakeholders --- experimental social research --- Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) --- stakeholder participation --- serious game --- Blue Growth --- Good Environmental Status --- serious games (SGs) --- water management --- value change --- transcendental values --- social equity --- sustainability --- Schwartz’s Value Survey (SVS) --- Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) --- psychosocial perspectives --- decision-making processes --- assessment --- educational videogames --- online games --- water --- ecology education --- drinking water management --- peri-urban --- institutions --- gaming-simulation --- groundwater --- capacity building --- serious games --- planning support systems --- knowledge co-creation --- sustainability --- maritime spatial planning --- serious gaming --- flood --- urban --- rural --- infrastructure --- decision making --- serious games --- role-playing games --- learning-based intervention --- transformative change --- social learning --- aquaculture --- Mekong Delta --- mangrove --- gamification --- serious games --- water governance --- stakeholder participation --- sustainability --- game-based learning --- integrated water resource management (IWRM) --- natural resource management --- simulation --- serious game --- social learning --- stakeholder collaboration --- sustainability --- water governance

Sustainable Use of Soils and Water: The Role of Environmental Land Use Conflicts

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ISBN: 9783039286447 / 9783039286454 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-645-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book on the sustainable use of soils and water addressed a variety of issues related to the utopian desire for environmental sustainability and the deviations from this scene observed in the real world. Competing interests for land are frequently a factor in land degradation, especially where the adopted land uses do not conform with the land capability (the natural use of soil). The concerns of researchers about these matters are presented in the articles comprising this Special Issue book. Various approaches were used to assess the (im)balance between economic profit and environmental conservation in various regions, in addition to potential routes to bring landscapes back to a sustainable status being disclosed.

Keywords

land eco-security --- multi-dimension --- cloud model --- set pair theory --- evaluation --- sustainable development --- water resources --- Contemporary Yellow River Delta --- groundwater depth --- temporal stability --- debris flow waste-shoal land --- land use and transformation --- driving forces analysis --- territorial development --- marginal land resources --- groundwater flow field --- scale effects --- discrete wavelet transform --- time series analysis --- multiple stresses --- land use conflicts --- encounters of interests --- landscape as geosystem --- integrative landscape management --- Trnava district --- nitrogen --- agriculture --- Nitrate Vulnerable Zones --- macromodel DNS/SWAT --- rural households’ behaviors --- arable soil --- heavy metal pollution assessment --- Lankao county --- Managed Aquifer --- Recharge --- Groundwater --- Institutions --- Ghana --- comprehensive land carrying capacity --- multi-criterion comprehensive evaluation --- analytic hierarchy process --- standard deviation --- weight --- spatial variation --- Green GDP --- Ecosystem service value --- Gross Domestic Product --- Land Use --- CA-Markov --- Land use change --- temporal-spatial variations --- environmental and economic changes --- arid region --- central Asia --- land use/cover change --- SWAT --- hydrological processes --- sustainable agriculture --- MicroLEIS DSS --- land-use planning --- soil reclamation --- groundwater recharge --- recharge zones --- river basin --- spatialization --- relief --- geology --- forest --- urbanization --- water resource management --- land use policy --- water footprint --- agricultural and livestock products --- Penman–Monteith equation --- evapotranspiration --- climate conditions --- withdrawal of agricultural land --- contributions --- developmental factors --- territorial factors --- legislative factors --- hydrologic modeling --- ungauged catchment --- stream flow downscaling --- karst aquifer --- urban area --- conjunctive water resources management --- recharge --- overexploitation --- geo hazards --- water resources --- soil --- land use change --- conflicts --- environmental degradation --- sustainability

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