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"Es muß besser werden!". Aby und Max Warburg im Dialog über Hamburgs geistige Zahlungsfähigkeit

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Book Series: Mäzene für Wissenschaft ISBN: 9783943423280 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.MFW.17.157 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:17

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The story of how Max Warburg became head of the family-owned bankhouse, although his brother was supposed to take over the business, was often told: When he was 12 years old, the one year older Aby offered Max his birthright for the promise to buy all the books Aby would ever need. Max accepted,and - as he later said - issued "the biggest blank cheque in my life". The paths of life of the two brothers spilt into different directions. Aby built his library into a research institute. Max developed M. M. Warburg & Co., thus the bankhouse becoming one of the most important private banks in Germany. At Simultaneously, they both pursued another goal: the foundation of the university. The brothers were among the early donors of the Hamburg Scientific Foundation (Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung). It was all about "Hamburg's mental capacity" ("Hamburgs geistige Zahlungsfähigkeit").

Metabolic Adaptation to Cell Growth and Proliferation in Normal and Pathological Conditions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454846 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-484-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Proliferating cells must adapt their metabolism to fulfill the increased requirements for energy demands and biosynthetic intermediates. This adaptation is particularly relevant in cancer, where sustained rapid proliferation combined with the harsh conditions of the tumor microenvironment represent a major metabolic challenge. Noteworthy, metabolic reprogramming is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, the one size fits all rarely applies to the metabolic rewiring occurring in cancer cells, which ultimately depends on the combination of several factors such as the tumor’s origin, the specific genetic alterations and the surrounding microenvironment. In the present Research Topic, we compile a series of articles that discuss different metabolic adaptations that proliferating cells undergo to sustain growth and division, as well as the potential therapeutic window to treat certain pathologies, with a special focus on cancer.

Wittgenstein's Novels

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Book Series: Studies in Philosophy ISBN: 9780203959152 9780415975223 9780415535953 9781135487881 9781135487959 9781135488024 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203959152 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:03
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Analyzing features of Wittgenstein's philosophical work and including in-depth textual analyses, this study investigates the impact of Ludwig Wittgenstein's work on contemporary German and French novelists. Drawing upon aesthetics, architectural history, philosophy of science, and photography, the book seeks to explain why references both to Wittgenstein as a person, as well as to his work are more pervasive than other equally renowned twentieth century philosophers and asks why some authors such as Händler and Roubaud, are less well-known and only partially translated into Eng.

Keywords

sebalds --- narratives --- wenn --- wir --- jacques --- roubaud --- text --- wittgensteins --- reflections --- warburg

Cancer Metabolism: Molecular Targeting and Implications for Therapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453221 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-322-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Development of an effective anticancer therapeutic necessitates the selection of cancer-related or cancer-specific pathways or molecules that are sensitive to intervention. Several such critical yet sensitive molecular targets have been recognized, and their specific antagonists or inhibitors validated as potential therapeutics in preclinical models. Yet, majority of anticancer principles or therapeutics show limited success in the clinical translation. Thus, the need for the development of an effective therapeutic strategy persists. “Altered energy metabolism” in cancer is one of the earliest known biochemical phenotypes which dates back to the early 20th century. The German scientist, Otto Warburg and his team (Warburg, Wind, Negelein 1926; Warburg, Wind, Negelein 1927) provided the first evidence that the glucose metabolism of cancer cells diverge from normal cells. This phenomenal discovery on deregulated glucose metabolism or cellular bioenergetics is frequently witnessed in majority of solid malignancies. Currently, the altered glucose metabolism is used in the clinical diagnosis of cancer through positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thus, the “deregulated bioenergetics” is a clinically relevant metabolic signature of cancer cells, hence recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). Accumulating data unequivocally demonstrate that, besides cellular bioenergetics, cancer metabolism facilitates several cancer-related processes including metastasis, therapeutic resistance and so on. Recent reports also demonstrate the oncogenic regulation of glucose metabolism (e.g. glycolysis) indicating a functional link between neoplastic growth and cancer metabolism. Thus, cancer metabolism, which is already exploited in cancer diagnosis, remains an attractive target for therapeutic intervention as well. The Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic “Cancer Metabolism: Molecular Targeting and Implications for Therapy” emphases on recent advances in our understanding of metabolic reprogramming in cancer, and the recognition of key molecules for therapeutic targeting. Besides, the topic also deliberates the implications of metabolic targeting beyond the energy metabolism of cancer. The research topic integrates a series of reviews, mini-reviews and original research articles to share current perspectives on cancer metabolism, and to stimulate an open forum to discuss potential challenges and future directions of research necessary to develop effective anticancer strategies.

Redox and Metabolic Circuits in Cancer

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456352 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-635-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Living cells require a constant supply of energy for the orchestration of a variety of biological processes in fluctuating environmental conditions. In heterotrophic organisms, energy mainly derives from the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids, whose chemical bonds breakdown allows electrons to generate ATP and to provide reducing equivalents needed to restore the antioxidant systems and prevent from damage induced by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide (NO)-derived species (ROS and RNS). Studies of the last two decades have highlighted that cancer cells reprogram the metabolic circuitries in order to sustain their high growth rate, invade other tissues, and escape death. Therefore, this broad metabolic reorganization is mandatory for neoplastic growth, allowing the generation of adequate amounts of ATP and metabolites, as well as the optimization of redox homeostasis in the changeable environmental conditions of the tumor mass. Among these, ROS, as well as NO and RNS, which are produced at high extent in the tumor microenvironment or intracellularly, have been demonstrated acting as positive modulators of cell growth and frequently associated with malignant phenotype. Metabolic changes are also emerging as primary drivers of neoplastic onset and growth, and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis are emerging as pivotal in driving tumorigenesis.Targeting the metabolic rewiring, as well as affecting the balance between production and scavenging of ROS and NO-derived species, which underpin cancer growth, opens the possibility of finding selective and effective anti-neoplastic approaches, and new compounds affecting metabolic and/or redox adaptation of cancer cells are emerging as promising chemotherapeutic tools.In this Research Topic we have elaborated on all these aspects and provided our contribution to this increasingly growing field of research with new results, opinions and general overviews about the extraordinary plasticity of cancer cells to change metabolism and redox homeostasis in order to overcome the adverse conditions and sustain their “individualistic” behavior under a teleonomic viewpoint.

Fritz Saxl - Eine Biografie

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ISBN: 9783205788638 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_459331 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4321
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-11-15 20:22:07
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Aby Warburg (1866-1929), the celebrated Hamburg art historian, who broke new ground with his research into Renaissance art history, found in Fritz Saxl (1890-1948), art historian, head librarian and finally his successor as director of Warburg's library and later the Warburg Institute, a scholar who contributed to the shaping of a pluridisciplinary understanding of research. Through Saxl's research of problems of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages he gave important impulses to the scholarly understanding of intellectual history. Saxl, who extended the library system of the "good neighbourliness" of books, demonstrated his organizational thinking and strategies, which anticipated the use of hyperlinks - albeit without today's electronic technology. It was Saxl who turned Warburg's library from a private library into the centre of an international network for scholars. He spoke of himself as the wanderer through the museums and libraries of Europe, an agricultural worker who worked the piece of ground between history of art, literature, science and religion. Saxl's own research agenda was multifarious, the history of astrology, of mythology, in particular the research into illuminated astrological and mythological manuscripts of the Middle Ages, gleaned from archives all over Europe and published in three comprehensive Verzeichnisse. He further worked on religions of classical antiquity, the transition from pagan to Christian traditions, Mithras as well as art historical topics, Bellini, Titian. His life-long great admiration for Rembrandt found expession in a number of publications. 17th century art history, English medieval sculpture and his last great interest, seals, completed his scholarly output. But next to these research topics his achievements in the fields of organization were the area in which Saxl truly excelled. Warburg, although he spoke of him as the "junior partner", admired his scholarly honesty and thoroughness, but ultimately underestimated his achievements in administration and organization; these alone made it possible that the private library of Warburg could be consolidated into a internationally approved institute of teaching and research in Germany, and then in Great Britain. As Warburg's successor Saxl both kept as close as possible to Warburg's method as well as break fresh ground. Saxl was a truly original thinker, a congenial teacher, very demanding to his students and colleagues, but also fiercely supportive, for instance, to Roger Hinks, when he lost his post at the British Museum in the course of the affair of the cleaning of the Elgin Marbles. He employed Anthony Blunt as editor of the Warburg Institute publications, he brought Ernst H. Gombrich from Vienna to London in 1936. He was a great example to the young art historian John Pope-Hennessy, later Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum. Today, the Warburg Institute is a post-graduate research institute specializing in researching cultural and intellectual history, a forum for scholars and students. The fact that teaching and research could be kept up in Hamburg until 1933 and resumed in London from 1934 onward, speaks for the personal commitment of the employees and above all for Saxl;s intellectual courage and sense for practical solutions. His unstinting effort and dedication were certainly reasons for Saxl's early death at 58 years of age.

Carbohydrates 2018

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ISBN: 9783039283163 9783039283170 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-317-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book contains original papers and reviews on carbohydrate research in medicine, authored by participants of the 29th International Carbohydrate Symposium, where this topic had a special emphasis. The focus on biological events involving carbohydrates and glycoconjugates has delivered reliable approaches for disease treatment and diagnosis. Research on carbohydrate-based compounds for therapeutic applications is illustrated in various contributions, namely those covering the development of novel agents against Alzheimer’s disease, e.g. the neuroprotective C-glucosylated flavones and the isonucleoside-based cholinesterase inhibitors. New imino sugar glucosidase inhibitors are also disclosed, a class of compounds with potential for diabetes, Gaucher disease or cancer treatment. Also the development of a useful synthetic method towards multivalent glycoclusters of biomedical interest is here highlighted. The relevance of glycomimetics in drug discovery and the progress on carbohydrates in early diagnosis and cancer treatment are reviewed. Noteworthy is the chitosan-based delivery system for drug oral administration, a new biomaterial-based approach to improve bioavailability. Another study on the conformation of Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide backbones by molecular modelling provides useful information for bacterial immunotherapeutic approaches. All original contributions and reviews clearly demonstrate the potential of glycosciences for innovation in medicinal (glyco)chemistry and pharmaceutical research.

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