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Fire Mountains of the Islands

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ISBN: 9781922144225 9781922144232 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_462202 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-01-13 12:34:09
License: ANU Press

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Volcanic eruptions have killed thousands of people and damaged homes, villages, infrastructure, subsistence gardens, and hunting and fishing grounds in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The central business district of a town was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in the case of Rabaul in 1994. Volcanic disasters litter not only the recent written history of both countries—particularly Papua New Guinea—but are recorded in traditional stories as well. Furthermore, evidence for disastrous volcanic eruptions many times greater than any witnessed in historical times is to be found in the geological record. Volcanic risk is greater today than at any time previously because of larger, mainly sedentary populations on or near volcanoes in both countries. An attempt is made in this book to review what is known about past volcanic eruptions and disasters with a view to determining how best volcanic risk can be reduced today in this tectonically complex and volcanically threatening region

Stress Field Control of Eruption Dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452774 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-277-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Increasing evidence supports the claim that stress changes play a fundamental role in triggering volcanic eruptions. Stress changes may vary in origin to include earthquakes, erosion and landslide processes, deglaciation, or tidal effects. The local stress can also change as response of magma influx from deeper reservoirs and an increase of the magma/gas pressure. The stress transfer may be of great importance in reawakening a dormant system. As an example, significant statistical correlation of large earthquakes and eruptions in time and space was suggested in many works. The interaction may be two-fold; where magma intrusions may change the stress at active faults and trigger earthquakes, while tectonic earthquakes may affect the magmatic system and change the eruption activity. The change in local tectonic stress has been claimed as trigger of large ignimbrite eruptions or for controlling the eruptive style of explosive eruptions. Sometimes volcano systems that are nested or closely located may become active in chorus; neighbouring volcanoes may interact in the sense that one volcano triggers its neighbouring volcano. However, although there is ample evidence of concurrence, the processes of interacting volcanoes and near- to far-field tectonic stress are not well understood. Some studies suggest that volcanic eruptions are triggered if compressive stress acts at the magma system and “squeezes” out magma. Other studies suggest that extensional stress fields facilitate magma rise and thus encourage eruptions, or that fluctuating compression and extension during the passing of seismic waves trigger eruptions. This research topic tries to address some of the important open questions in interaction between stress field and volcanic eruption, though both review papers and new contributions.

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