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Technology Meets Research:60 Years of CERN Technology: Selected Highlights

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Book Series: Advanced Series on Directions in High Energy Physics ISBN: 9789814749145 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.1142/9921 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 05:19:09
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"Big" science and advanced technology are known to cross-fertilize. This book emphasizes the interplay between particle physics and technology at CERN that has led to breakthroughs in both research and technology over the laboratory's first 60 years. The innovations, often the work of individuals or by small teams, are illustrated with highlights describing selected technologies from the domains of accelerators and detectors. The book also presents the framework and conditions prevailing at CERN that enabled spectacular advances in technology and contributed to propel the European organization into the league of leading research laboratories in the world.While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.

Elastomerreibung und Kraftübertragung beim Abscheren von aktiv betriebenen Vakuumgreifern auf rauen Oberflächen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Reihe Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb / Institut für Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) ISSN: 23638222 ISBN: 9783731506430 Year: Volume: 70 Pages: XIX, 248 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000066972 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The present work includes the analysis of the load transmission and the modeling of the friction coefficient ? on rough surfaces during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers. The two main components of elastomeric friction (hysteresis and adhesion) are modeled. In addition, the positive locking is also examined in detail. The presented friction model allows to calculate the friction coefficient and therefore to optimize the design of restraint systems for vacuum grippers.

Sugar, Steam and Steel: The Industrial Project in Colonial Java, 1830-1850

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ISBN: 9781922064998 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.20851/steam-and-steel Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-19 00:53:15
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Sugar, Steam and Steel is about cane sugar and the transformation of an Indonesian island into the â Oriental Cubaâ during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Between the 1830s and the 1880s, sweetener manufacture in Dutch-controlled Java â the crown jewel of the erstwhile Netherlands Indies â drew decisively away in matters of technology and sugar science from other Asian centres of production which had once equaled or, more often, surpassed it in terms of both output and know-how. Along with its larger and altogether more famous Caribbean counterpart, Javaâ s industry came to occupy a position at the apex of the trade in what had become by this date a key global commodity.

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Quantum Probability and Randomness

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ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics&mdash;in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation

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ISBN: 9783039214853 9783039214860 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-486-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue contains selected papers from works presented at the 8th EASN–CEAS (European Aeronautics Science Network–Council of European Aerospace Societies) Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation, which was held in Glasgow, UK, 4–7 September 2018. About 150 participants contributed to a high-level scientific gathering providing some of the latest research results on the topic, as well as some of the latest relevant technological advancements. ?ine interesting articles, which cover a wide range of topics including characterization, analysis and design, as well as numerical simulation, are contained in this Special Issue.

Cosmological Inflation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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ISBN: 9783039217649 9783039217656 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-765-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the late-time universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.

MEMS Accelerometers

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ISBN: 9783038974147 9783038974154 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-415-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices are widely used for inertia, pressure, and ultrasound sensing applications. Research on integrated MEMS technology has undergone extensive development driven by the requirements of a compact footprint, low cost, and increased functionality. Accelerometers are among the most widely used sensors implemented in MEMS technology. MEMS accelerometers are showing a growing presence in almost all industries ranging from automotive to medical. A traditional MEMS accelerometer employs a proof mass suspended to springs, which displaces in response to an external acceleration. A single proof mass can be used for one- or multi-axis sensing. A variety of transduction mechanisms have been used to detect the displacement. They include capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal, tunneling, and optical mechanisms. Capacitive accelerometers are widely used due to their DC measurement interface, thermal stability, reliability, and low cost. However, they are sensitive to electromagnetic field interferences and have poor performance for high-end applications (e.g., precise attitude control for the satellite). Over the past three decades, steady progress has been made in the area of optical accelerometers for high-performance and high-sensitivity applications but several challenges are still to be tackled by researchers and engineers to fully realize opto-mechanical accelerometers, such as chip-scale integration, scaling, low bandwidth, etc.

Keywords

low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) --- capacitive accelerometer --- wireless --- process optimization --- performance characterization --- MEMS accelerometer --- mismatch of parasitic capacitance --- electrostatic stiffness --- high acceleration sensor --- piezoresistive effect --- MEMS --- micro machining --- turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate --- probe --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoresistive sensor chip --- Taguchi method --- marine environmental monitoring --- accelerometer --- frequency --- acceleration --- heat convection --- motion analysis --- auto-encoder --- dance classification --- deep learning --- self-coaching --- wavelet packet --- classification of horse gaits --- MEMS sensors --- gait analysis --- rehabilitation assessment --- body sensor network --- MEMS accelerometer --- electromechanical delta-sigma --- built-in self-test --- in situ self-testing --- digital resonator --- accelerometer --- activity monitoring --- regularity of activity --- sleep time duration detection --- indoor positioning --- WiFi-RSSI radio map --- MEMS-IMU accelerometer --- zero-velocity update --- step detection --- stride length estimation --- field emission --- hybrid integrated --- vacuum microelectronic --- cathode tips array --- interface ASIC --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- delaying mechanism --- safety and arming system --- accelerometer --- multi-axis sensing --- capacitive transduction --- inertial sensors --- three-axis accelerometer --- micromachining --- miniaturization --- stereo visual-inertial odometry --- fault tolerant --- hostile environment --- MEMS-IMU --- mode splitting --- Kerr noise --- angular-rate sensing --- whispering-gallery-mode --- optical microresonator --- three-axis acceleration sensor --- MEMS technology --- sensitivity --- L-shaped beam --- n/a

Gas Flows in Microsystems

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ISBN: 9783039215423 9783039215430 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-543-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The last two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) involving gas microflows in various technical fields. Gas microflows can, for example, be observed in microheat exchangers designed for chemical applications or for cooling of electronic components, in fluidic microactuators developed for active flow control purposes, in micronozzles used for the micropropulsion of nano and picosats, in microgas chromatographs, analyzers or separators, in vacuum generators and in Knudsen micropumps, as well as in some organs-on-a-chip, such as artificial lungs. These flows are rarefied due to the small MEMS dimensions, and the rarefaction can be increased by low-pressure conditions. The flows relate to the slip flow, transition or free molecular regimes and can involve monatomic or polyatomic gases and gas mixtures. Hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer are strongly impacted by rarefaction effects, and temperature-driven microflows offer new opportunities for designing original MEMS for gas pumping or separation. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel theoretical and numerical models or data, as well as on new experimental results and technics, for improving knowledge on heat and mass transfer in gas microflows. Papers dealing with the development of original gas MEMS are also welcome.

Keywords

pressure drop --- microchannels --- heat sinks --- slip flow --- electronic cooling --- Knudsen pump --- thermally induced flow --- gas mixtures --- direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) --- microfluidic --- rarefied gas flows --- micro-scale flows --- Knudsen layer --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- OpenFOAM --- Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) --- Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) --- backward facing step --- gaseous rarefaction effects --- fractal surface topography --- modified Reynolds equation --- aerodynamic effect --- bearing characteristics --- underexpansion --- Fanno flow --- flow choking --- compressibility --- binary gas mixing --- micro-mixer --- DSMC --- splitter --- mixing length --- control mixture composition --- preconcentrator --- microfluidics --- miniaturized gas chromatograph --- BTEX --- PID detector --- ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) --- spectrophotometry --- UV absorption --- gas sensors --- Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) --- toluene --- hollow core waveguides --- capillary tubes --- gas mixing --- pulsed flow --- modular micromixer --- multi-stage micromixer --- modelling --- photoionization detector --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- volatile organic compound (VOC) detection --- toluene --- supersonic microjets --- Pitot tube --- Knudsen pump --- thermal transpiration --- vacuum micropump --- rarefied gas flow --- kinetic theory --- microfabrication --- photolithography --- microfluidics --- resonant micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) --- micro-mirrors --- out-of-plane comb actuation --- fluid damping --- analytical solution --- FE analysis --- miniaturization --- gas flows in micro scale --- measurement and control --- integrated micro sensors --- advanced measurement technologies --- n/a

Solid-Phase Microextraction

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ISBN: 9783039282623 9783039282630 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-263-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This book covers the most recent research activities and achievements regarding to the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. It is a powerful sample preparation tool that addresses the new challenges of analytical laboratories. Among others, its fundamental applications involved the sampling of volatile compounds from various matrixes. The demonstrated topics ranged from aroma characterization of various fruits, essential oils to the utilization of SPME for in-tube extraction and isolation of selected compounds from complex samples followed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques.

Keywords

mango germplasm --- volatile compound --- HS-SPME-GC-MS --- multivariate analysis --- cubeb berry --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- solid-phase microextraction (SPME) --- hydro-distillation (HD) --- simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE) --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) --- SPME --- OH-PAHs --- gas-chromatography --- MTBSTFA --- in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) --- nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) --- contact trace analysis --- cannabis --- THC --- solid-phase microextraction --- air sampling --- air analysis --- volatile organic compounds --- COMSOL --- time-weighted average --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- headspace solid phase microextraction --- glandular source --- Monomorium chinense --- DI-SPME --- GC-MS --- Mediterranean fruit fly --- extraction solvent --- metabolites --- leave-one-solute-out (LOSO) cross-validation --- leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation --- linear free-energy relationship (LFER) model --- membrane-coated fiber (MCF) approach --- partition coefficient --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) --- metalworking fluid --- volatile organic compounds --- torrefaction --- waste to carbon --- biochar --- municipal solid waste --- SPME --- aromatic water --- hydrolat --- volatile compounds --- metabolic fingerprint --- eucalyptol --- SPME --- retracted SPME --- TWA SPME --- GC–MS --- on-site sampling --- air quality --- air monitoring --- VOCs --- odor --- environmental analysis --- biogenic emissions --- veraison --- viticulture --- nondestructive analysis --- wine aroma --- diffusion --- grape skin --- vacuum-assisted extraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- VOCs --- historical foods --- preserves --- volatile organic compounds (VOCs) --- bisphenol-A (BPA) --- essential oil --- drying --- SPME --- true lavender --- volatile constituents --- in-tube SPME-MS/MS --- dual ligand organic-silica hybrid monolith capillary --- amino acids --- plasma samples --- pears --- HS-SPME --- volatile compounds --- GC

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