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Anpassungsrelevante Klimaänderungen für städtische Baustrukturen und Wohnquartiere

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783731507710 Year: Volume: 77 Pages: XI, 305 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000080685 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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The influence of climate change on urban heat island intensity is analyzed for the city of Karlsruhe, southwestern Germany. First, its present diurnal and seasonal as well as spatial modes of variability are characterized by means of different meteorological observation datasets. One focus is on temperature differences during heat events. Second, high-resolution regional climate model data allow for projecting the future development of the urban heat island.

Urban Overheating - Progress on Mitigation Science and Engineering Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976363 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-637-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The combination of global warming and urban sprawl is the origin of the most hazardous climate change effect detected at urban level: Urban Heat Island, representing the urban overheating respect to the countryside surrounding the city. This book includes 18 papers representing the state of the art of detection, assessment mitigation and adaption to urban overheating. Advanced methods, strategies and technologies are here analyzed including relevant issues as: the role of urban materials and fabrics on urban climate and their potential mitigation, the impact of greenery and vegetation to reduce urban temperatures and improve the thermal comfort, the role the urban geometry in the air temperature rise, the use of satellite and ground data to assess and quantify the urban overheating and develop mitigation solutions, calculation methods and application to predict and assess mitigation scenarios. The outcomes of the book are thus relevant for a wide multidisciplinary audience, including: environmental scientists and engineers, architect and urban planners, policy makers and students.

Keywords

heat health --- meteorological modeling --- urban climate --- urban-climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban heat island index --- Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) --- green area --- built-up area --- air temperature --- measurement --- calculation --- urbanization --- air and surface temperature measurements --- outdoor thermal comfort --- urban heat island --- surface cool island effect --- urban overheating --- urban microclimate --- mitigation strategies --- urban development --- park cool island --- urban cooling --- urban morphology --- micro-climate simulations --- ageing --- emissivity --- measurement --- solar reflectance --- solar reflectance index --- thermal emittance --- urban heat island --- land surface temperature --- “hot spots” --- “cold spots” --- MODIS downscaling --- overheating --- summer heat stress --- urban open space --- shading --- thermal comfort --- Physiologically Equivalent Temperature --- mitigation strategies --- cooling technologies --- cool materials --- WRF-Chem --- urban climate --- air quality --- urban heat island --- surface albedo --- climatic perception --- urban areas --- thermal comfort --- subtropical climate --- cool pavements --- road lighting --- urban heat island --- road surface --- material characterization --- luminance coefficient --- energy savings --- Euramet --- EMPIR 16NRM02 --- building energy performance --- energy simulation --- building retrofit --- multi-objective optimization --- genetic algorithm --- urban overheating --- cost-optimal analysis --- lifecycle analysis --- office buildings --- sustainability --- air temperature --- spectral analysis --- multifractal analysis --- structure functions analysis --- cool roofs --- fine-resolution meteorological modeling --- mobile temperature observations --- urban climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban vegetation --- urbanized WRF --- Weather Research and Forecasting model --- multiple linear regression --- urban heat island --- urban climatology --- urban energy balance --- air temperature --- land cover fraction --- urban morphology --- land surface temperature --- heat stress --- urban heat mitigation --- albedo --- cool facades --- spectral reflectance --- urban remote sensing --- empirical line method --- building scale --- local climate zone --- urban climate --- sky view factor --- morphological indicator --- open science --- GIS --- urban heat island --- urban overheating --- non-constructible parcels --- cool surfaces --- urban vegetation --- ENVI-met --- mitigation measures --- Beirut

Sustainable Interdisciplinarity: Human-Nature Relations

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ISBN: 9783039281169 9783039281176 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-117-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Sustainable interdisciplinarity focuses on human–nature relations and a multitude of contemporary overlapping research between society and the environment. A variety of disciplines have played a large part in better understanding sustainable development since its high-profile emergence approximately a quarter of a century ago. At present, the forefront of sustainability research is an array of methods, techniques, and growing knowledge base that considers past, present, and future pathways. Specific multidisciplinary concentrations within the scope of societal changes, urban landscape transformations, international environmental comparative studies, as well as key theories and dynamics relating to sustainable performance are explored. Specializations in complex sustainability issues address international governance arrangements, rules, and organizations—both public and private—within the scope of four themes: sustainability, human geography, environment, and interdisciplinary societal studies. This book contains eleven thoroughly refereed contributions concerning pressing issues that interlink sustainable interdisciplinarity with the presented themes in terms of the human–nature interface.

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

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