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Sensors for Ultrasonic NDT in Harsh Environments

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ISBN: 9783039284221 / 9783039284238 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-423-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In this Special Issue of Sensors, seven peer-reviewed manuscripts appear on the topic of ultrasonic transducer design and operation in harsh environments: elevated temperature, high gamma and neutron radiation fields, or the presence of aggressive chemicals. Motivations for these research and development projects are strongly focused on nuclear power plant inspections (particularly liquid-sodium cooled reactors), and nondestructive testing of high-temperature piping installations. It is anticipated that extensive use of permanently mounted robust transducers for in-service monitoring of petrochemical plants and power generations stations; quality control in manufacturing plants; and primary and secondary process monitoring in the fabrication of engineering materials will soon be made.

Ultrasonic Cavitation Treatment of Metallic Alloys

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ISBN: 9783039281961 9783039281978 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-197-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue scrutinizes the use of ultrasonic-cavitation melt treatment in technology of high-quality metallic alloys with improved mechanical properties, and assesses the driving mechanisms of cavitation-induced effects, such as grain refinement, degassing, wetting, and particle distribution. In this context, the research published in this Special Issue considers the interaction between the cavitation field and acoustic streaming with the melt flow and the suspended solid/liquid phases, the characterization and mapping of cavitation activity in a melt volume, and the possibility of achieving high efficiency in processing large melt volumes through technological approaches for the commercial implementation of ultrasonic processing technology.

Einfluss der Leitungselektronen auf die Dynamik atomarer Tunnelsysteme in ungeordneten Festkörpern: Relaxationsprozesse in metallischen Gläsern und ungeordneten dünnen Aluminiumoxid-Schichten

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731508700 Year: Volume: 22 Pages: II, 98 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000087939 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The speed of sound in metallic glasses and the permittivity of dielectric alumina layers show the typical low-temperature behavior of amorphous solids. Acoustic measurements from a few kHz to GHz show the influence of the conduction electrons in a massive bulk metallic glass. Measurements of the permittivity at a few kHz surprisingly show an influence of the electrons on the properties of an insulating layer.

Ultrasonic Guided Waves

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ISBN: 9783039282982 9783039282999 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-299-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in solids is an important area of scientific inquiry, primarily due to their practical applications for nondestructive characterization of materials, such as nondestructive inspection, quality assurance testing, structural health monitoring, and providing a material state awareness. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences covers all aspects of ultrasonic guided waves (e.g., phased array transducers, meta-materials to control wave propagation characteristics, scattering, attenuation, and signal processing techniques) from the perspective of modeling, simulation, laboratory experiments, or field testing. In order to fully utilize ultrasonic guided waves for these applications, it is necessary to have a firm grasp of their requisite characteristics, which include that they are multimodal, dispersive, and are comprised of unique displacement profiles through the thickness of the waveguide.

Keywords

electromagnetic wave --- group velocity --- time-frequency domain reflectometry --- dispersive medium --- ultrasonic guided wave --- nondestructive testing --- square steel bar --- non-detection zone --- surface flaw --- Rayleigh wave --- scattering --- modified BEM --- reconstruction --- adhesive joint --- single lap joint --- non-destructive testing --- damage identification --- Lamb waves --- scanning laser vibrometry --- signal processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- axial transmission --- ultrasonic guided waves --- fiber optics --- fiber Bragg grating --- nondestructive testing --- structural health monitoring --- pipe inspection --- partial wave method --- slowness curves --- lamb wave --- stoneley wave --- mode sorting --- acoustic leakage --- rayleigh wave --- surface waves --- elastodynamics --- guided waves --- lamb wave --- dispersion curves --- phase velocity --- group velocity --- signal processing --- SH0 mode --- circumferential scanning --- synthetic aperture focusing --- exploding reflector model --- Lamb wave --- local wavenumber --- air-coupled transducer --- wavenumber domain filtering --- hybrid and non-contact system --- signal processing --- SNR --- split-spectrum processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- signal processing --- defect detection --- spatial domain --- array analysis --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) --- metamaterial --- resonator --- low-frequency --- lamb wave --- adaptive filtering --- leaky normalized mean square --- ultrasonic guided waves --- pipeline inspection --- SNR enhancement --- signal processing --- guided wave --- multi-wire cable --- wave structure --- contact acoustic nonlinearity --- energy transfer --- rail --- ultrasonic guided wave --- semi-analytical finite element --- single mode extraction algorithm --- defect location --- signal processing --- defect detection --- torsional wave --- power spectrum --- sliding window --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided-waves (UGWs) --- magnetostrictive patch transducer --- shear mode --- soft magnetic patch --- dynamic magnetic field optimization --- signal strength enhancement --- acoustic emission --- nondestructive testing --- leakage location --- fault diagnosis --- n/a --- lamb waves --- composite --- ultrasonic testing --- numerical modelling --- pressure vessels

MEMS Technology for Biomedical Imaging Applications

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ISBN: 9783039216048 9783039216055 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-605-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biomedical imaging is the key technique and process to create informative images of the human body or other organic structures for clinical purposes or medical science. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has demonstrated enormous potential in biomedical imaging applications due to its outstanding advantages of, for instance, miniaturization, high speed, higher resolution, and convenience of batch fabrication. There are many advancements and breakthroughs developing in the academic community, and there are a few challenges raised accordingly upon the designs, structures, fabrication, integration, and applications of MEMS for all kinds of biomedical imaging. This Special Issue aims to collate and showcase research papers, short commutations, perspectives, and insightful review articles from esteemed colleagues that demonstrate: (1) original works on the topic of MEMS components or devices based on various kinds of mechanisms for biomedical imaging; and (2) new developments and potentials of applying MEMS technology of any kind in biomedical imaging. The objective of this special session is to provide insightful information regarding the technological advancements for the researchers in the community.

Keywords

tilted microcoil --- electromagnetically-driven --- surface micromachining --- polyimide capillary --- MEMS --- ego-motion estimation --- indoor navigation --- monocular camera --- scale ambiguity --- wearable sensors --- photoacoustic --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- miniaturized microscope --- lead-free piezoelectric materials --- high frequency ultrasonic transducer --- needle-type --- high spatial resolution --- ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer --- Si lens --- tight focus --- finite element simulation --- low noise amplifier (LNA) --- noise figure --- smart hydrogels --- bio-sensors --- chemo-sensor --- electrochemical sensors --- transduction techniques --- near-field microwave --- microwave resonator --- microwave remote sensing --- potentiometric sensor --- gold nanoparticles --- metal oxide field-effect transistor --- chemo-FET --- bio-FET --- photoacoustic imaging --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- MEMS scanning mirror --- micromachined US transducer --- microring resonator --- acoustic delay line --- MEMS mirror --- Lissajous scanning --- pseudo-resonant --- sensing --- imaging --- display --- MEMS actuators --- microendoscopy --- confocal --- two-photon --- wide-filed imaging --- photoacoustic --- fluorescence --- scanner --- capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) --- acoustics --- micromachining --- capacitive --- transducer --- modelling --- fabrication --- 3D Printing --- piezoelectric array --- ultrasonic transducer --- ultrasonic imaging --- micro-optics --- bioimaging --- microtechnology --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- in vitro --- in vivo --- cantilever waveguide --- electrostatic actuator --- non-resonating scanner --- optical scanner --- push-pull actuator --- rib waveguide --- n/a

Acoustic and Elastic Waves: Recent Trends in Science and Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038422976 9783038422969 Year: Pages: XVI, 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-297-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General) --- Acoustics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:51:20
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The present Special Issue intends to explore new directions in the field of acoustics and ultrasonics. The interest includes, but is not limited to, the use of acoustic technology for condition monitoring of materials and structures.Topics of interest (among others):• Acoustic emission in materials and structures (without material limitation)• Innovative cases of ultrasonic inspection• Wave dispersion and waveguides• Monitoring of innovative materials• Seismic waves• Vibrations, damping and noise control• Combination of mechanical wave techniques with other types for structural health monitoring purposes.Experimental and numerical studies are welcome.

Non-destructive Testing of Materials in Civil Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039216901 9783039216918 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-691-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book was proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of nondestructive testing of materials in civil engineering. For this reason, the articles highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of nondestructive testing of different materials in civil engineering—from building materials to building structures. The current trend in the development of nondestructive testing of materials in civil engineering is mainly concerned with the detection of flaws and defects in concrete elements and structures, and acoustic methods predominate in this field. As in medicine, the trend is towards designing test equipment that allows one to obtain a picture of the inside of the tested element and materials. From this point of view, interesting results with significance for building practices have been obtained

Keywords

non-destructive testing --- masonry structures --- strengthening --- ultrasonic tomography --- adhesion assessment --- autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) --- compressive strength --- shape and size of specimen --- moisture of AAC --- ultrasonic testing --- gantry crane --- RMF technique --- civil engineering --- fibre-cement boards --- non-destructive testing --- acoustic emission --- degree of degradation --- thermovision --- active thermography --- thermal contrast --- defect detection --- location of inclusions --- non-destructive testing --- materials research --- building partition --- cement-based composites --- fiber cement boards --- durability --- ultrasound measurements --- spun concrete --- micro-computed tomography --- nanoindentation --- deconvolution --- mathematical morphology --- non-destructive evaluation --- structural damage --- natural frequency --- singular value truncation --- multiple feedbacks --- data noise --- NDT methods --- rebar location --- eddy-current method --- GPR method --- concrete --- concrete mix design --- concrete strength prediction --- data mining --- machine learning --- timber structures --- non-destructive methods --- ultrasonic wave --- stress wave --- drilling resistance --- X-ray micro-computed tomography --- waste brick dust --- adsorption --- lead --- cesium --- surface complexation --- precipitation --- solid-state NMR spectroscopy --- Lamb waves --- scanning laser vibrometry --- adhesive joints --- non-destructive testing --- damage detection --- excitation frequency --- nondestructive testing --- thermography --- monitoring of structures --- reinforced concrete chimney --- corrosion processes --- service life of a structure --- viscoelastic parameters --- creep test --- fatigue tests --- asphalt mixtures --- Burgers model --- four point bending beam --- pattern recognition --- acoustic emission --- Structural Health Monitoring --- brittle fracture --- diagnostics --- non-destructive testing --- reinforced concrete grandstand stadium --- vibration analysis --- crowd-induced excitation --- structural tuning --- concrete slabs and floorings --- horizontal casting --- compressive strength --- ultrasonic tests --- fibre-cement boards --- non-destructive testing --- acoustic emission --- artificial neural networks --- SEM --- non-destructive method --- damage --- mercury intrusion porosimetry --- X-ray computed tomography --- acoustic emission AE --- acoustic spectrum --- quasi brittle cement composites --- destruction process --- resistance measurement --- wood moisture sensing --- non-destructive testing --- moisture safety --- cellulose fibre cement boards --- microstructure --- nanoindentation --- SEM-EDS analysis --- temperature --- concrete elements --- concrete strength --- reinforced concrete tanks --- concrete corrosion --- sulphate corrosion --- ultrasound tests --- rebound hammer --- SilverSchmidt --- concrete --- compressive strength --- non-destructive testing --- non-destructive testing --- diagnostic --- acoustic methods --- ultrasound --- building materials --- defects

Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems

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ISBN: 9783039216369 9783039216376 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-637-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The development of solid state gas sensors based on microtransducers and nanostructured sensing materials is the key point in the design of portable measurement systems able to reach sensing and identification performance comparable with analytical ones. In such a context several efforts must be spent of course in the development of the sensing material, but also in the choice of the transducer mechanism and its structure, in the electrical characterization of the performance and in the design of suitable measurement setups. This call for papers invites researchers worldwide to report about their novel results on the most recent advances and overview in design and measurements for applications in gas sensors, along with their relevant features and technological aspects. Original research papers are welcome (but not limited) on all aspects that focus on the most recent advances in: (i) basic principles and modeling of gas and VOCs sensors; (ii) new gas sensor principles and technologies; (iii) Characterization and measurements methodologies; (iv) transduction and sampling systems; (vi) package optimization; (vi) gas sensor based systems and applications.

Science, Characterization and Technology of Joining and Welding

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ISBN: 9783039289974 / 9783039289981 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-998-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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As the Guest Editor of this Special Issue entitled ""Science, Characterization, and Technology of Joining and Welding"" of Metals, I am pleased to have this book published by MDPI. Joining, including welding, soldering, brazing, and assembly, is an essential requirement in manufacturing processes and is classified as a secondary manufacturing process. This Special Issue of Metals includes technical and review papers on, but not limited to, different aspects of joining and welding, including welding technologies (i.e., fusion-based welding and solid-state welding), characterization, metallurgy and materials science, quality control, and design and numerical simulation. This Special Issue also includes the joining of different materials, including metal and non-metals (polymers and composites), including 17 peer-reviewed papers from several researchers all around the globe (China, Germany, Brazil, South Koria, Slovakia, USA, Taiwan, Canada, and India). As of this date (April 2020), the papers in this Special Issue have been cited 47 times by other researchers, which I think is an eminent number and shows the high quality of the published papers in this Issue. This Special Issue includes a large diversity of various subjects in the field of joining: laser welding, friction stir welding, diffusion bonding, multipass welding, rotary friction-welding, friction bit joining, adhesive bonding, weldbonding, simulation and experimentation, metal/FRP joints, welding simulation, plasma–TIG coupled arc welding, liquation cracking, soldering, resin bonding, microstructural characteristics, brazing, and friction stir butt and scarf welding. I would like to sincerely thank all the researchers who contributed to this Special Issue for their high-quality research. I also would like to acknowledge Mr. Toliver Guo, Senior Assistant Editor at MDPI, who continuously and tirelessly contributed toward this Special Issue by assisting me with inviting the authors and the follow ups. I think this Special Issue will enhance our knowledge and understanding in the field of joining and assembly. I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Mehrnoosh, for her continued support and encouragement.

Keywords

adhesive thermos-mechanical property --- SnBi58 solder joint morphology --- flex-on-board assembly --- thermal compression bonding --- ultrasonic bonding --- friction stir welding --- scarf joint --- butt joint --- tool pin profiles --- mechanical properties --- microstructure --- metallurgy --- vacuum brazing --- titanium --- eutectoid --- clad filler foil --- microstructure --- SA213-T23 --- Cr-Mo steel --- heat-affected zone --- m23c6 --- carbide dissolution --- tint etching --- high-crystalline content zirconia --- active monomers --- oxide layer --- solder --- ceramics --- copper --- flux-less soldering --- IN738 superalloy --- welding --- HAZ cracking --- microconstituent --- plasma-TIG --- coupled arc --- arc profile --- pressure distribution --- welding --- 22MnB5 --- flow stress --- thermophysical property --- numerical simulation --- hybrid joining --- surface structuring --- thermal spraying --- coating --- FRP --- hot pressing --- bonding strength --- adhesion --- mechanical interlocking --- phased array ultrasonic --- dissimilar weldments --- anisotropy --- longitudinal wave --- simulation --- dissimilar material joining --- carbon fiber-reinforced polymer --- dual-phase steel --- friction bit joining --- adhesive bonding --- weld bonding --- mechanical strength --- rotary friction-welding --- energy-input --- joint mechanical properties --- welding thermal cycles --- medium thick plate model --- distributed point heat sources model --- local brittle zone --- API 5L X80 steel --- Ti2AlNb alloy --- TAN alloy --- direct diffusion bonding --- interfacial microstructure --- mechanical properties --- friction stir welding --- aluminum --- copper --- dissimilar joints --- design of experiments --- taguchi design --- mechanical properties --- electrical properties --- tailor welded blanks --- laser welding --- Zn-coated low carbon microalloyed steels --- microstructure --- pores

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

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