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Microglia in Health and Disease: A Unique Immune Cell Population

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456017 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system (CNS), make microglia a unique cell population compared to other tissue-macrophages. The unique properties and functions of microglial cells, such as their role in synaptic pruning or the exceptional capacity to scan the brain parenchyma and rapidly react to its perturbations, have emerged in recent years. In the coming years, understanding how microglia acquire and maintain their unique profiles in order to fulfil distinct tasks in the healthy CNS and how these are altered in disease, will be essential to develop strategies to diagnose or treat CNS disorders with an immunological component.This Research Topic covers several aspects of microglial biology, ranging from their origin and the functional role of microglia during development and lifespan, their molecular properties compared with other brain and peripheral immune cells to microglial phenotypes and functional states in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours. In conclusion, the present Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of several cellular and molecular mechanisms that make microglia a unique immune cell population within the healthy CNS as well as under inflammatory, neurodegenerative and tumorigenic processes.

Autoimmuno-Anti-Tumour Immunity (AATI) - Understanding the Immune Responses against "Self" & "Altered-self"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451906 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-190-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The brief description of tumours being “wounds that do not heal” by Dr Harold F. Dworak nearly three decades ago (N Engl J Med 1986) has provided not only a vivid illustration of neoplastic diseases in general but also, in retrospect conceptually, a plausible immunological definition of cancers. Based on our current understanding in the field, it could have even a multi-dimensional meaning attached with. This relates to several important issues which need to be addressed further, i.e. in terms of a close link between chronic inflammation and tumourigenesis widely observed; clinical and experimental evidence of immunity against tumours versus the highly immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment being associated; and their underlying immunological mechanisms, oncogenic basis, as well as the true causal relationship in question. Recent findings from studies into the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and, more importantly, the mechanisms which protect against it, have offered some new insights for our understanding in this direction. Chronic or persistent autoimmune-like inflammatory conditions are evidently associated with tumor development. The important question is about their true causal relationship. Chronic or persistent inflammation has been shown to contribute directly to tumour development by triggering neoplastic transformation and production of inflammatory mediators which could promote cancer cell survival, proliferation and invasion. On the other hand, tumours are mutated self-tissue cells to which the host immune system is largely tolerized otherwise. Although the mutations may give rise to the expression of tumour-specific antigens (TSA) or tumour-associated antigens (TAA), most of these TSAs/TAAs are found to be poor immunogens. The ongoing inflammatory conditions may therefore reflect a desperate attempt of the host immune system to mount anti-tumour responses, though ineffectively, being a consequence of the continuous yet largely futile triggering by those poorly immunogenic TSAs/TAAs. Furthermore, during autoimmune or overtly persistent immunological responses, many regulatory mechanisms are triggered in the host in attempts to limit the ongoing harmful inflammatory reactions. Such a negative feedback regulation is known to be crucial in preventing normal individuals from immune-mediated diseases. As a result of the negative feedback loop, however, an excessive production of anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive molecules followed by the exhaustion of the immune effector cells may instead lower the ability of the host immune system to mount specific anti-tumor responses, allowing the escape of tumour or mutated cells from immunosurveillance. This may also help to explain why the most effective way to enhance host immunity against cancer is by targeting the negative arm of immune regulation. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we aim to gather current views from experts in these inherent overlapping fields of oncology, autoimmunity and tumour immunology, and to make them available to our potential readership who may be particularly interested in this cutting-edge area. By understanding how the immune system is normally regulated, why dysregulation of which may cause the immunological-oncological related diseases, we also encourage further discussions as to how the so-called "self-reactivity" (autoimmune responses) can be alternatively switched on and redirected, immunologically or molecularly, for effective cancer treatment.

History of Chemoattractant Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197019 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-701-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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In the Research Topic "History of Chemoattractant Research" we will portray some of the key discoveries that helped to transform cell migration research into a global playing field within immunology (and beyond). Early progress had a profound effect on both, academia and industry. Today, numerous academic laboratories are fully engaged in compiling a detailed road map describing the highly complex network of immune and tissue cells that respond to chemoattractants. Industrial research, on the other hand, centers on drugs that interfere with immune cell traffic in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The following series of “short stories” provide personal accounts on key discoveries. The individual molecular discoveries enabled numerous research laboratories worldwide to unravel their significance in steady-state or pathological immune processes. Although ground-breaking in their own right, it is therefore worth emphasizing that rapid progress in chemoattractant research was made possible by many other laboratories who were not directly involved in the original discovery process. Therefore, the authors of this mini-series are discussing their findings in the context of time, place and subsequent progress enabled by their discoveries. It is hoped that a wide readership will find these accounts entertaining as well as educational although those who wish to gain a more detailed knowledge are referred to the many outstanding reviews on chemokines and other chemoattractants.

Tumour Viruses

ISBN: 9783038421511 9783038421528 Year: Pages: 470 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:59:05
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Current worldwide estimates suggest that approxiamtely 11% of all cancers are caused by viral infections. At present, there are eight viruses that have a strong association with cancer development namely, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I, Merkel cell polyomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Some of these viruses and associated cancers, such as human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, are well studied and the causal link between infection and cancer development is established. However, the involvement of these known oncogenic viruses in cancer development at other body sites is not well understood and further study of these viruses continues to highlight novel mechanisms of cellular transformation. Other cancer-associated viruses are only recently discovered, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, and further work is required to formally prove their role in cancer development. In this Special Issue, we seek to explore novel mechanisms of cellular transformation by oncogenic viruses, the role of viral infection in cancer development in understudied body sites and the potential role of novel viral pathogens in cancer development.

Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197699 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-769-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with patchy BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies

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ISBN: 9783038972334 9783038972327 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-232-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 11:44:20
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Micro-bioreactors offer unique opportunities to study biological systems under fluidic conditions. The concept of micro-bioreactors suggests that biological reaction conditions on a large scale can be scaled down to micro-volumes while maintaining performance and functionality. Models and operation principles can be simulated at a smaller scale, either by scaling down organs in the human body, or using bioreactors for the production of biologics. This book highlights these issues with a strong focus on new engineering design. The initial chapters cover the conceptual design of microbioreactors and organ-on-chips, and the role of microbioreactors in tissue engineering for clinical and therapeutic targets. Two chapters are dedicated to microbioreactors for implementing tumor models. Other chapters discuss three-dimensional models for hepatic and cardiac cells for toxicity testing and drug evaluation. Finally, the design of organ chips for cartilage scaffolds and the integration of sensors are covered in separate chapters. We believe the book will have substantial value for researchers active in bioreactor engineering, drug development and cell physiology, as well as readers interested in these topics.

Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology

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ISBN: 9783039214952 / 9783039214969 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-496-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The endometrium has been the subject of intense research in a variety of clinical settings, because of its importance in the reproductive process and its role in women’s health. In the past 15 years, significant efforts have been invested in defining the molecular phenotype of the receptive phase endometrium as well as of various endometrial pathologies. Although this has generated a wealth of information on the molecular landscape of human endometrium, there is a need to complement this information in light of the novel methodologies and innovative technical approaches. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms of endometrium and endometrium-related disorders. The progress made in the molecular actions of steroids, in the metabolism of steroids and intracrinology, in endometrial intracellular pathways, in stem cells biology, as well as in the molecular alterations underlying endometrium-related pathologies has been the focus of the reviews and papers included.

Keywords

RANK --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- prognosis --- immunohistochemistry --- gene expression --- endometriosis --- developmental pathway --- pathogenomics --- mesenchymal stem cells --- endometrial cancer --- mtDNA mutations --- deficit of complex I --- antioxidant response --- mitochondrial biogenesis --- mitochondrial dynamics --- mitophagy --- miRNA --- lncRNAs --- endometrial cancer --- endometriosis --- chronic endometritis --- cell contacts --- tight junction --- adherens junction --- gap junction --- endometrium --- implantation --- decidualization --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- liquid biopsy --- uterine aspirate --- circulating tumour cells (CTCs) --- circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) --- exosomes --- Vitamin D --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- endometrial cancer --- preclinical models --- translational research --- endometrial cancer --- type II endometrial carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- kinase inhibitor --- molecular marker --- protein kinase --- protein phosphatase --- PP2A --- PPP2R1A --- SMAP --- endometriosis --- infertility --- niche --- inflammation --- immunomodulation --- mesenchymal stem cell --- orthoxenograft --- uterine cancer --- avatar --- murine models --- personalized medicine --- targeted therapy --- preclinical studies --- translational research --- endometriosis --- TRP channels --- endometrial stromal cells --- eutopic and ectopic endometrium --- endometrial cell --- pathway --- proliferation --- decidualization --- migration --- angiogenesis --- regeneration --- breakdown --- implantation --- endometrial cancer --- orthotopic xenograft model --- estrogen dependent --- bioluminescence imaging --- contrast-enhanced CT scan --- endometrium --- adult stem cells --- endometrial regeneration --- stem cell markers --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- decidualisation --- oestradiol --- aromatase --- testosterone --- dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- sulfatase --- endometriosis --- ectopic stroma --- microRNA --- small RNA sequencing --- EDN1 --- HOXA10 --- miR-139-5p --- miR-375 --- CTCF --- tumour suppressor gene --- haploinsufficiency --- zinc finger --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- cancer --- endometrial cancer --- gene editing --- phosphoinositide 3-kinase --- PIK3CA --- PIK3CB --- p110? --- p110? --- endometrial cancer --- LGR5 --- endometrium --- endometriosis --- menstrual cycle --- macrophages

Micro- and Nanofluidics for Bionanoparticle Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039215942 / 9783039215959 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-595-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Bionanoparticles such as microorganisms and exosomes are recoganized as important targets for clinical applications, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Other nanoscale biological particles, includeing liposomes, micelles, and functionalized polymeric particles are widely used in nanomedicines. The recent deveopment of microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies has enabled the separation and anslysis of these species in a lab-on-a-chip platform, while there are still many challenges to address before these analytical tools can be adopted in practice. For example, the complex matrices within which these species reside in create a high background for their detection. Their small dimension and often low concentration demand creative strategies to amplify the sensing signal and enhance the detection speed. This Special Issue aims to recruit recent discoveries and developments of micro- and nanofluidic strategies for the processing and analysis of biological nanoparticles. The collection of papers will hopefully bring out more innovative ideas and fundamental insights to overcome the hurdles faced in the separation and detection of bionanoparticles.

Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions

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ISBN: 9783038979920 / 9783038979937 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-993-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Oral health is general health. If the oral cavity is kept healthy, the whole body is always healthy. Bacteria in the oral cavity do not stay in the oral cavity, but rather they travel throughout the body and can induce various diseases. Periodontal pathogens are involved in tooth loss. The number of remaining teeth decreases with age. People with more residual teeth can bite food well and live longer with lower incidence of dementia. There are many viruses in the oral cavity that also cause various diseases. Bacteria and viruses induce and aggravate inflammation, and therefore should be removed from the oral cavity. In the natural world, there are are many as yet undiscovered antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory substances. These natural substances, as well as chemically modified derivatives, help our oral health and lead us to more fulfilling, high quality lives. This Special Issue, entitled “Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions”, was written by specialists from a diverse variety of fields. It serves to provide readers with up-to-date information on incidence rates in each age group, etiology and treatment of stomatitis, and to investigate the application of such treatments as oral care and cosmetic materials.

Keywords

metabolomics --- oral cell --- benzaldehyde --- eugenol --- inflammation --- cytotoxicity --- stomatitis --- recurrent aphthous stomatitis --- oral lichen planus --- CCN2 --- glucocorticoids --- alkaloids --- anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- antiviral --- natural product --- human virus --- inflammatory disease --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- anti-osteoclast activity --- cepharanthin --- herbal medicine --- natural product --- arachidonic acid cascade --- allergic rhinitis --- mice --- quercetin --- thioredoxin --- nasal epithelial cell --- production --- increase --- in vitro --- in vivo --- nutritionally variant streptococci --- antimicrobial susceptibilities --- oral microbiota --- infective endocarditis --- kampo formula --- traditional Japanese herbal medicine --- stomatitis --- mucositis --- Hangeshashinto --- polyphenol --- chromone --- lignin-carbohydrate complex --- alkaline extract --- Kampo medicine --- glucosyltransferase --- angiotensin II blocker --- QSAR analysis --- oral diseases --- dental application --- Chinese herbal remedies --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- Kampo --- traditional medicine --- Jixueteng --- Juzentaihoto --- technical terms --- gargle --- tongue diagnosis --- mastic --- pathogenic factors --- quantitative structure-activity relationship --- machine learning --- random forest --- natural products --- tumour-specificity --- Kampo medicine --- constituent plant extract --- stomatitis --- oral inflammation --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis --- metabolomics

mTOR in Human Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039210602 / 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

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