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Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039213092 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment

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ISBN: 9783039286300 / 9783039286317 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-631-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Keywords

Changbai Mountain --- Erman’s birch --- microsite --- alpine treeline --- non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) --- treeline --- climate change --- ecosystem manipulation --- space-for-time substitution --- long-term trends --- Central Austrian Alps --- 15N natural abundance --- nitrogen cycling --- treeline --- shrubline --- altitude --- light quantity --- light quality --- spectrometer --- shoot elongation --- tree seedlings --- forest climatology --- Switzerland --- temperature --- relative air humidity --- thermal continentality --- foehn winds --- expert elicitation --- knowledge engineering --- apical control --- multi-stemmed growth form --- Pinus cembra --- treeline --- climate change --- experimental rain exclusion --- plant water availability --- soil drought --- treeline --- sap flow --- Picea abies --- Larix decidua --- drought --- Mediterranean climate --- photoinhibition --- photosynthetic pigments --- tocopherol --- climate change --- climate zone --- environmental stress --- forest edge --- precipitation --- tree regeneration --- tree seedling recruitment --- upward advance --- alpine timberline --- conifer shrub --- pit aspiration --- refilling --- winter stress --- xylem embolism --- tree line --- sub-Antarctic --- westerly winds --- postglacial --- Holocene --- Southern Ocean --- climate change --- palynology --- cloud --- peat --- dendroclimatology --- elevational gradients --- drought --- western Montana --- Rocky Mountains --- treeline --- climate change --- fungal ecology --- diversity --- monitoring --- NDVI --- permafrost --- remote sensing data --- history of treeline research --- elevational treeline --- polar treeline --- treeline dynamics --- timberline --- higher altitude --- chlorophyll --- carotenoids --- climate change --- Pinus sibirica --- Abies sibirica --- elevational transect --- basal area increment --- climate warming --- conifers --- European Alps --- growth trend --- n/a

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