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Solar Energy Applications in Houses, Smart Cities and Microgrids

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ISBN: 9783039280681 9783039280698 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-069-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Five papers were selected for this Special Issue, with three relating to solar energy applications in houses, smart cities, and microgrids; one studying the relationship between the smart city model and the concept of energy sustainability; and one addressing the following two topics: the lack of effectiveness of detection algorithms based on the voltage/frequency displacement concept under voltage-controlled inverters and the applicability limits of others based on the impedance measurement (IM).

Building Thermal Envelope

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ISBN: 9783039285181 9783039285198 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-519-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book results from a Special Issue published in Energies, entitled “Building Thermal Envelope"". Its intent is to identify emerging research areas within the field of building thermal envelope solutions and contribute to the increased use of more energy-efficient solutions in new and refurbished buildings. Its contents are organized in the following sections: Building envelope materials and systems envisaging indoor comfort and energy efficiency; Building thermal and energy modelling and simulation; Lab test procedures and methods of field measurement to assess the performance of materials and building solutions; Smart materials and renewable energy in building envelope; Adaptive and intelligent building envelope; and Integrated building envelope technologies for high performance buildings and cities.

Keywords

hybrid heat collecting facade (HHCF) --- passive solar building --- heat transfer model --- thermal performance --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- thermal resistance --- thermal transmittance --- heat flow meter method --- average method --- convergence characteristics --- opaque exterior wall --- hot box --- thermal models --- measuring and control system --- digital temperature probes --- data post-processing --- roof window --- thermal performance --- passive building --- building component development --- natural ventilation --- air environment --- school restroom --- awning window --- CFD --- thermal anisotropy --- building envelope --- thermal management --- energy efficiency --- peak load reduction --- window thermal performance --- U-value --- window type --- simulation performance test --- actual physical performance test --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- expanded polystyrene (EPS) --- gray polystyrene --- artificial sun --- thermographic measurement --- temperature distribution --- cork --- energy retrofitting --- life cycle assessment --- life cycle costs --- thermal insulating rendering mortar --- Building Information Modeling --- cloud-based --- envelope thermal performance --- green buildings --- Green Mark --- Integrated Digital Delivery (IDD) --- traditional Diyarbak?r houses --- courtyard --- settlement --- Designbuilder simulation --- energy performance --- n/a

Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Energy Performance Assessment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219261 9783039219278 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-927-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The building industry is influenced by many factors and trends reflecting the current situation and developments in social, economic, technical, and scientific fields. One of the most important trends seeks to minimize the energy demand. This can be achieved by promoting the construction of buildings with better thermal insulating capabilities of their envelopes and better efficiency in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Any credible assessment of building energy performance includes the identification and simulation of heat and mass transfer phenomena in both the building envelope and the interior of the building. As the interaction between design elements, climate change, user behavior, heating effectiveness, ventilation, air conditioning systems, and lighting is not straightforward, the assessment procedure can present a complex and challenging task. The simulations should then involve all factors affecting the energy performance of the building in questions. However, the appropriate choice of physical model of heat and mass transfer for different building elements is not the only factor affecting the output of building energy simulations. The accuracy of the material parameters applied in the models as input data is another potential source of uncertainty. For instance, neglecting the dependence of hygric and thermal parameters on moisture content may affect the energy assessment in a significant way. Boundary conditions in the form of weather data sets represent yet another crucial factor determining the uncertainty of the outputs. In light of recent trends in climate change, this topic is vitally important. This Special Issue aims at providing recent developments in laboratory analyses, computational modeling, and in situ measurements related to the assessment of building energy performance based on the proper identification of heat and mass transfer processes in building structures.

PV System Design and Performance

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ISBN: 9783039216222 9783039216239 Year: Pages: 360 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-623-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) has been developing rapidly in the past decades, leading to a multi-billion-dollar global market. It is of paramount importance that PV systems function properly, which requires the generation of expected energy both for small-scale systems that consist of a few solar modules and for very large-scale systems containing millions of modules. This book increases the understanding of the issues relevant to PV system design and correlated performance; moreover, it contains research from scholars across the globe in the fields of data analysis and data mapping for the optimal performance of PV systems, faults analysis, various causes for energy loss, and design and integration issues. The chapters in this book demonstrate the importance of designing and properly monitoring photovoltaic systems in the field in order to ensure continued good performance.

Keywords

floating PV generation structure --- fiber reinforced polymeric plastic (FRP) --- pultruded FRP --- sheet molding compound FRP --- structural design --- mooring system --- photovoltaic plants --- software development --- performance analysis --- loss analysis --- graphical malfunction detection --- fuzzy logic controller --- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) --- dc-dc converter --- photovoltaic system --- photovoltaic system --- modeling --- stability analysis --- grid-connected --- photovoltaics --- modules --- shade resilience --- buck converter --- module architecture --- PV array --- FCM algorithm --- cluster analysis --- fault diagnosis --- membership algorithm --- solar energy --- photovoltaic module performance --- organic soiling --- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) --- floating PV systems (FPV) --- floating PV module (FPVM) --- ANOVA --- Bartlett’s test --- Hartigan’s dip test --- Jarque-Bera’s test --- Kruskal-Wallis’ test --- Mood’s Median test --- residential buildings --- Tukey’s test --- urban context --- solar cells --- AC parameters --- underdamped oscillation --- impedance spectroscopy --- partial shading --- photo-generated current --- photovoltaic performance --- maximum power point --- image processing --- photovoltaic (PV) systems monitoring --- malfunction detection --- data analysis --- PV systems --- cluster analysis --- failure detection --- ageing and degradation of PV-modules --- performance analysis --- UV-fluorescence imaging --- photovoltaic modeling --- parameter estimation --- optimization problem --- metaheuristic --- opposition-based learning --- quasi-opposition based learning --- improved cuckoo search algorithm --- PV energy performance --- PV thermal performance --- thermal interaction --- conventional roof membrane --- vegetated/green roof --- Renewable Energy --- PV systems --- forecast --- energy --- simulation --- silicon --- photovoltaics --- modules --- electroluminescence --- defects --- cracks --- performance ratio --- annual yield --- GIS --- PV system --- spatial analyses --- performance ratio --- GIS --- PV module --- system --- population density --- urban compactness --- solar farm --- photovoltaics --- reactive power support --- STATCOM --- technical costs --- photovoltaic systems --- reliability --- real data --- energy yield --- fault tree analysis --- failure mode and effect analysis --- availability --- failure rates

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Both New and Rehabilitated

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ISBN: 9783039287024 / 9783039287031 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-703-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Buildings are one of the main causes of the emission of greenhouse gases in the world. Europe alone is responsible for more than 30% of emissions, or about 900 million tons of CO2 per year. Heating and air conditioning are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. Most buildings currently in use were built with poor energy efficiency criteria or, depending on the country and the date of construction, none at all. Therefore, regardless of whether construction regulations are becoming stricter, the real challenge nowadays is the energy rehabilitation of existing buildings. It is currently a priority to reduce (or, ideally, eliminate) the waste of energy in buildings and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy through renewable sources. The first can be achieved by improving the architectural design, construction methods, and materials used, as well as the efficiency of the facilities and systems; the second can be achieved through the integration of renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, etc.) in buildings. In any case, regardless of whether the energy used is renewable or not, the efficiency must always be taken into account. The most profitable and clean energy is that which is not consumed.

Keywords

greenhouse --- floor envelope design --- ground heat transfer --- thermal insulation --- energy modeling --- life cycle cost analysis --- nearly zero energy building --- artificial neural network --- performance parameter design --- energy saving ratio --- dynamic simulation --- urban modelling --- co-simulation --- simulation engines --- building stock energy demand --- building --- energy --- heat load --- sensitivity --- glazing --- surface cooling --- three-phase unbalance minimization --- model predictive control --- home energy management system --- perturbation and observation --- adjustable step size --- low power loss --- maximum power point tracking --- HVAC demand --- prediction --- energy efficiency --- residential buildings --- Ipomoea batatas --- lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA), thermal performance --- extensive green roof --- subtropical climate --- artificial neural network --- big data --- energy-performance gap --- building energy prediction --- building user activity --- single-person household --- Korean household energy consumption --- analytical hierarchy process --- energy efficiency promotion --- influencing factors --- residential buildings --- policy design --- building energy --- passive architecture --- test method --- energy performance standard --- zero energy building --- technology package --- renovation --- energy renovation --- demolition --- new construction --- energy use --- energy performance --- life cycle cost --- optimization --- OPERA-MILP --- multi-family buildings --- Arab region --- building sector --- energy efficiency --- energy productivity --- GCC --- Maghreb --- Mashreq --- space heating --- domestic hot water (DHW) --- air, ground and water source heat pump (ASHP, GSHP and WSHP) --- coefficient of performance (COP) --- seasonal performance factor (SPF) --- energy pile --- energy tunnel --- Level(s) --- green building rating systems --- Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) --- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) --- Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) --- Leadership in Energy &amp --- Environmental Design (LEED) --- energy efficiency --- subtropical climate building --- Minimum-Energy Building (MEB) --- building refurbishment --- building rehabilitation --- building renovation --- envelope airtightness --- envelope thermography --- envelope transmittance

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

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