Search results: Found 54

Listing 1 - 10 of 54 << page
of 6
>>
Sort by
Oscillatory "Temporal Sampling" and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards an Over-Arching Theoretical Framework

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194391 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-439-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Children with developmental dyslexia fail to acquire efficient reading and spelling skills despite adequate tuition and an absence of overt sensory and/ or neural deficits. Learning to read and spell requires linguistic skills, auditory skills and visual skills. Oscillatory 'temporal sampling' theory links the development of sensory and linguistic processes. The auditory system 'samples' acoustic information at different temporal rates, which for speech processing suggests that temporal information encoded by delta, theta and gamma oscillations is bound together in the final speech percept. Temporal sampling theory proposed a possible deficit in dyslexia in auditory sampling of the speech signal at syllable-relevant rates (< 10 Hz, delta and theta). This would hypothetically affect prosodic development prior to reading and syllable-based parsing, which would affect efficient linguistic skills and consequently reading development across languages. The visual system also samples information in the visuo-spatial field. In theory atypical visual oscillatory sampling could therefore be related to some of the visual features of developmental dyslexia. In this special issue, we bring together visual and auditory sensory processing studies around the general theme of oscillatory temporal sampling. Contributors were encouraged to discuss their findings within a temporal sampling perspective. The resulting studies cover a wide range of sensory processes, with findings both supporting and contradicting the theory. It is also important to note that studies covered a wide range of languages, and that the behavioural manifestations of a sampling impairment may differ both with language and over the course of development. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to see such diverse findings considered within a single theoretical framework, even if at the same time, it is apparent that an over-arching theoretical framework encompassing both visual and auditory deficits in dyslexia is yet to be achieved.

21 Effective Cooperation Between Strangers in Unexpected and Dangerous Situations (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch21 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This chapter aims to discuss what it takes to make people or groups that do not know each other previously establish effective cooperation during unforeseen events. The focus is on the formation process of “swift trust”, and the potential prerequisites and outcomes of such trust, seen as an alternative to traditional, history-based trust approaches that dominate the research literature of today. “Swift trust” may enable effective cooperation even among people that are unfamiliar with each other. This is seen as a relevant perspective because such temporal groups often handle unforeseen and critical events. Given the limited amount of research on “swift trust”, the chapter also aims to identify future research questions. In the analysis, I utilize different theoretical perspectives, including the social sciences, experimental psychology and leadership, and seek to conclude the investigation by identifying different leadership strategies that may stimulate the formation of “swift trust”."

Optical Approaches to Capture Plant Dynamics in Time, Space, and Across Scales

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455430 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-543-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Quantifying temporal changes in plant geometry as a result of genetic, developmental, or environmental causes is essential to improve our understanding of the structure and function relationships in plants. Over the last decades, optical imaging and remote sensing developed fundamental working tools to monitor and quantify our environment and plants in particular. Increased efficiency of methods lowered the barrier to compare, integrate, and interpret the optically obtained plant data across larger spatial scales and across scales of biological organization. In particular, acquisition speed at high resolutions reached levels that allow capturing the temporal dynamics in plants in three dimensions along with multi-spectral information beyond human visual senses. These advanced imaging capabilities have proven to be essential to detect and focus on analyzing temporal dynamics of plant geometries.The focus of this Research Topic is on optical techniques developed to study geometrical changes at the plant level detected within the wavelength spectrum between near-UV to near infrared. Such techniques typically involve photogrammetric, LiDAR, or imaging spectroscopy approaches but are not exclusively restricted to these. Instruments operating within this range of wavelengths allow capturing a wide range of temporal scales ranging from sub-second to seasonal changes that result from plant development, environmental effects like wind and heat, or genetically controlled adaption to environmental conditions. The Research Topic covered a plethora of methodological approaches as suggestions for best practices in the light of a particular research question and to a wider view to different research disciplines and how they utilize their state-of-the-art techniques in demonstrating potential use cases across different scales.

Hearing Voices, Demonic and Divine

Author:
ISBN: 9780429423093 9781472453983 9780429750953 9780429750939 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780429423093 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:22
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The Open Access version of this book, available at www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781472453983, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivative 4.0 license. Experiences of hearing the voice of God (or angels, demons, or other spiritual beings) have generally been understood either as religious experiences or else as a feature of mental illness. Some critics of traditional religious faith have dismissed the visions and voices attributed to biblical characters and saints as evidence of mental disorder. However, it is now known that many ordinary people, with no other evidence of mental disorder, also hear voices and that these voices not infrequently include spiritual or religious content. Psychological and interdisciplinary research has shed a revealing light on these experiences in recent years, so that we now know much more about the phenomenon of "hearing voices" than ever before. The present work considers biblical, historical, and scientific accounts of spiritual and mystical experiences of voice hearing in the Christian tradition in order to explore how some voices may be understood theologically as revelatory. It is proposed that in the incarnation, Christian faith finds both an understanding of what it is to be fully human (a theological anthropology), and God’s perfect self-disclosure (revelation). Within such an understanding, revelatory voices represent a key point of interpersonal encounter between human beings and God.

Keywords

gods --- avhs --- visionary --- experience --- hebrew --- scripture --- temporal --- lobe --- epilepsy --- religious

Understanding the Role of Time-Dimension in the Brain Information Processing

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451494 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-149-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the four-dimensional representation of space-time in the neuronal circuits. Information processing is an important part of this interaction, which is critically dependent on time-dimension. Information processing has played an important role in the evolution of mammals, and has reached a level of critical importance in the lives of primates, particularly the humans. The entanglement of time-dimension with information processing in the brain is not clearly understood at present. Time-dimension in physical world – the environment of an organism – can be represented by the interval of a pendulum swing (the cover page depicts temporal unit with the help of a swinging pendulum). Temporal units in neural processes are represented by regular activities of pacemaker neurons, tonic regular activities of proprioceptors and periodic fluctuations in the excitability of neurons underlying brain oscillations. Moreover, temporal units may be representationally associated with time-bins containing bits of information (see the Editorial), which may be studied to understand the entanglement of time-dimension with neural information processing. The optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the calibration of neural temporal units. Neural temporal units are calibrated as a result of feedback processes occurring during the interaction of an organism with environment. Understanding the role of time-dimension in the brain information processing requires a multidisciplinary approach, which would include psychophysics, single cell studies and brain recordings. Although this Special Issue has helped us move forward on some fronts, including theoretical understanding of calibration of time-information in neural circuits, and the role of brain oscillations in timing functions and integration of asynchronous sensory information, further advancements are needed by developing correct computational tools to resolve the relationship between dynamic, hierarchical neural oscillatory structures that form during the brain’s interaction with environment.

Dissecting the function of networks underpinning language repetition

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193646 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-364-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In the 19th century, ground-breaking observations on aphasia by Broca and Wernicke suggested that language function depends on the activity of the cerebral cortex. At the same time, Wernicke and Lichtheim also elaborated the first large-scale network model of language which incorporated long-range and short-range (transcortical connections) white matter pathways in language processing. The arcuate fasciculus (dorsal stream) was traditionally viewed as the major language pathway for repetition, but scientists also envisioned that white matter tracts travelling through the insular cortex (ventral stream) and transcortical connections may take part in language processing. Modern cognitive neuroscience has provided tools, including neuroimaging, which allow the in vivo examination of short- and long-distance white matter pathways binding cortical areas essential for verbal repetition. However, this state of the art on the neural correlates of language repetition has revealed contradictory findings, with some researchers defending the role of the dorsal and ventral streams, whereas others argue that only cortical hubs (Sylvian parieto-temporal cortex [Spt]) are crucially relevant. An integrative approach would conceive that the interaction between these structures is essential for verbal repetition. For instance, different sectors of the cerebral cortex (e.g., Spt, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula) act as hubs dedicated to short-term storage of verbal information or articulatory planning and these areas in turn interact through forward and backward white matter projections. Importantly, white matter pathways should not be considered mere cable-like connections as changes in their microstructural properties correlate with focal cortical activity during language processing tasks. Despite considerable progress, many outstanding questions await response. The articles in this Research Topic tackle many different and critical new questions, including: (1) how white matter pathways instantiate dialogues between different cortical language areas; (2) what are the specific roles of different white matter pathways in language functions in normal and pathological conditions; (3) what are the language consequences of discrete damage to branches of the dorsal and ventral streams; 4) what are the consequences (e.g., release from inhibition) of damage to the left white matter pathways in contralateral ones and viceversa; (5) how these pathways are reorganised after brain injury; (5) can the involvement/sparing of white matter pathways be used in outcome prediction and treatment response; and (5) can the microstructure of white matter pathways be remodelled with intensive rehabilitation training or biological approaches.This Research Topic includes original studies, and opinion and review articles which describe new data as well as provocative and insightful interpretations of the recent literature on the role of white matter pathways in verbal repetition in normal and pathological conditions. A brief highlight summary of each is provided below.

Neuronal mechanisms of epileptogenesis

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193820 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-382-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Several types of brain injuries are causes of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The seizure-free "latent period" that often follows the brain injury is of unknown mechanistic significance but is commonly considered as the "epileptogenic" period characterized by gradual pathogenic processes leading to the onset of clinically detectable epilepsy. Acute convulsive status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with an adverse developmental outcome characterized by learning disabilities related to the cumulative effects of seizures and development of TLE. The symptomatic manifestations of TLE appear only after a widespread irreversible damage of entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus, the brain area most affected by this disease. These pathological features of TLE reduce the possibility of successful therapeutic approaches, often rendering the disease refractory. The difficult clinical management of chronic TLE and the limited success rate of surgical approaches, increase the incapacitating nature of this specific epileptic disorder. Prevention of TLE with an appropriate intervention after a known inciting event (in the case of acquired epilepsy) might represent the most ambitious goal in the clinical treatment of this epileptic disorder, but has been largely unsuccessful to this point. Clinical trials aimed at prevention of chronic epilepsy have often produced negative, disappointing results. However, in most cases, these studies ultimately evaluated the downstream clinical manifestations, failing to monitor early, specific molecular epileptogenic events. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and their time course(s) are essential. The primary purpose of this topic is to collect scientific contributions providing novel insights in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis as potential targets for innovative therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing the chronic epileptic disorder.

The Temporal Dynamics of Cognitive Processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198887 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-888-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

From our ability to attend to many stimuli occurring in rapid succession to the transformation of memories during a night of sleep, cognition occurs over widely varying time scales spanning milliseconds to days and beyond. Cognitive processing is often influenced by several behavioral variables as well as nonlinear interactions between multiple neural systems. This frequently produces unpredictable patterns of behavior and makes understanding the underlying temporal factors influencing cognition a fruitful area of hypothesis development and scientific inquiry. Across two reviews, a perspective, and twelve original research articles covering the domains of learning, memory, attention, cognitive control, and social decision making this research topic sheds new light on the temporal dynamics of cognitive processing.

Towards embodied artificial cognition: TIME is on my side

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194735 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-473-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

From the moment of birth, humans and animals are immersed in time: all experiences and actions evolve in time and are dynamically structured. The perception of time is thus a capacity indispensable for the control of perception, cognition and action. The last 10 years have witnessed a remarkable resurgence of interest in timing and time perception, with a continuously increasing number of researchers exploring these innate abilities. However, existing robotic systems largely neglect the key role of time in cognition and action. This is a major barrier for accomplishing the long-term goal of symbiotic human-robot interaction. The critical question is: how is time instantiated in a biological system and how can it be implemented in an artificial system? Recent years have for example seen an increasing focus on the relationship between affective states and the experience of time. The influence of affective states on subjective time seems to depend on the embodiment of emotions: intertwined affective and interoceptive states may create our subjective experience of time. Since robotic systems are in essence embodied information-processing systems that interact with the real world, we hope to inspire a reciprocal exchange of ideas between the field of Robotics and the Cognitive Neurosciences. In this research topic, we call researchers from different disciplines (Robotics, Neurosciences, and Psychology) to present their empirical work, their models or reviews on the question of how time judgments are instantiated in biological and artificial systems. Of particular interest are papers on time perception in humans and animals, with a focused interest on embodied time perception, i.e. the influence of affective and body states on time judgments. Moreover, the present Research Topic seeks to gather papers discussing the key role of time on different aspects of robotic cognition as well as modeling approaches. We are interested in paving the way for a new generation of intelligent computational systems that incorporate the sense of time in their processing loop and thus accomplish more efficient and more advanced cognitive capacities.

Coding Properties in Invertebrate Sensory Systems

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451067 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-106-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Animals rely on sensory input from their environment for survival and reproduction. Depending on the importance of a signal for a given species, accuracy of sensory coding might vary from pure detection up to precise coding of intensity, quality and temporal features of the signal. Highly sophisticated sense organs and related central nervous sensory pathways can be of utmost importance for animals in a complex environment and when using advanced communication systems. In sensory systems different anatomical and physiological features have evolved to optimally encode behaviourally relevant signals at the level of sense organs and central processing. The wide range of organizational complexity, in combination with their relatively simple and accessible nervous systems, makes invertebrates excellent models to study general sensory coding principles. The contributions to this e-book illustrate on one hand particular features of specific sensory systems, and on the other hand indicate not only common features of sensory coding across invertebrate phyla, but also similar processing principles of complex stimuli between different sensory modalities. The chapters show that the extraction of behaviourally relevant signals from all environmental stimuli, as well as the detection of low intensity signals and the analysis of temporal features can be similar across sensory modalities, including olfaction, vision, mechanoreception, and heat perception.

Listing 1 - 10 of 54 << page
of 6
>>
Sort by