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Bainite and Martensite: Developments and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039288571 / 9783039288588 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-858-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

The microstructures of both martensite and bainite, although sharing some common features, depict a plethora of subtle differences that made them unique when studied in further detail. Tailoring the final properties of a microstructure based on one or the other as well as in combination with others and exploring more sophisticated concepts, such as Q&P and nanostructured bainite, are the topics which are the focus of research around the world. In understanding the key microstructural parameters controlling the final properties as well as definition of adequate process parameters to attain the desired microstructures requires that a proper understanding of the mechanism ruling their transformation and a detailed characterization first be acheived. The development of new and powerful scientific techniques and equipment (EBSD, APT, HRTEM, etc.) allow us to gain fundamental insights that help to establish some of the principles by which those microstructures are known. The developments accompanying such findings lead to further developments and intensive research providing the required metallurgical support.

Keywords

medium-Mn steel --- austenite decomposition --- dilatometry --- phase equilibrium --- retained austenite --- high carbon steels --- nanobainite --- low temperature bainite --- tensile ductility --- retained austenite stability --- transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) --- microalloyed steels --- niobium --- molybdenum --- titanium --- mechanical properties --- yield strength --- impact toughness --- modeling --- microstructure --- EBSD --- bainite --- ausforming --- kinetics --- plate thickness --- steel --- martensite --- bainite --- Q&amp --- P --- synchrotron --- HEXRD --- TRIP --- low temperature bainite --- nitrocarburising --- surface modification --- retained austenite --- bainitic ferrite --- transmission electron microscopy --- creep resistant steels --- carbonitrides precipitation --- martensite --- tempering --- thermomechanical treatment --- ferritic/martensitic steel --- MX nanoprecipitates --- tempered martensite embrittlement --- lenticular martensite --- offshore steels --- electron backscattering diffraction --- Kernel average misorientation --- transmission Kikuchi diffraction --- ultrahigh strength steel --- austempering --- carbon partitioning --- carbide precipitation --- bainitic/martensitic ferrite --- stainless steel --- metastable austenite --- strain-induced martensite --- transformation kinetics --- inductive measurements --- martensitic steel --- direct quenched --- industrialization --- hot rolling --- tempering --- welding --- fatigue --- high strength steel --- tempering --- dilatation behavior --- phase transformation --- microstructure --- bainite --- martensite --- n/a

Current Strategies to Improve the Nutritional and Physical Quality of Baked Goods

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ISBN: 9783039283460 9783039283477 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-347-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The lifestyle of humans is rapidly changing, and, correspondingly, their needs and the current and future megatrends of the food market. It is worth mentioning (1) the preference for natural, simple, and flexible diets that drive the further expansion of plant-focused formulations, (2) the focus on food sustainability (food waste reduction), and (3) the interest in healthy eating as the basis for good health. The hectic routine and rapid urbanization in developed and developing regions, respectively, have shifted consumer preferences toward bread and baked foods, which, interestingly, are often high in sugars and are categorized as having a high glycemic index. Therefore, it is of major importance to address the technological challenges of manufacturing baked goods with high physical and sensory quality that result in positive metabolic responses. This Special Issue seeks to provide fundamental understanding in this area and novel strategies to improve the nutritional properties of baked goods, including a decrease in starch bioaccessibility, sugar reduction, increase in fiber and/or protein content, and the improvement of phytochemical bioactivity. This Special Issue will also cover studies on the physical and sensory improvements of baked goods that may provide a mechanistic understanding to minimize the loss of quality after the incorporation of nutritional-improving ingredients, such as edible byproducts, proteins, or fibers. Last but not least, studies focused on the reduction of additives (clean label) or fat and on the use of sourdough to improve the sensory properties of baked goods will also be included.

Processing-Structure-Property Relationships in Metals

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ISBN: 9783039217700 9783039217717 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-771-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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In the industrial manufacturing of metals, the achievement of products featuring desired characteristics always requires the control of process parameters in order to obtain a suitable microstructure. The strict relationship among process parameters, microstructure, and mechanical properties is a matter of interest in different areas, such as foundry, plastic forming, sintering, welding, etc., and regards both well-established and innovative processes. Nowadays, circular economy and sustainable technological development are dominant paradigms and impose an optimized use of resources, a lower energetic impact of industrial processes and new tasks for materials and products. In this frame, this Special Issue covers a broad range of research works and contains research and review papers.

Keywords

titanium composites --- in situ secondary phases --- microstructure --- inductive hot pressing --- intermetallic --- bainite rail --- tempering --- retained austenite --- tensile property --- impact toughness --- cryorolling --- reduction --- ultrafine grain --- secondary recrystallization --- high strength --- microstructure inhomogeneity --- non-monotonic simple shear strains --- shear strain reversal --- severe plastic deformation --- texture inhomogeneity --- tensile properties --- Mg-10Y-6Gd-1.5Zn-0.5Zr --- ultra-fine grain --- aging treatment --- precipitation behavior --- mechanical property --- multimodal --- AZ91 alloy --- equal channel angular pressing --- aging --- high pressure die casting --- aluminum alloy --- prediction model --- process monitoring --- static mechanical behavior --- fracture surface --- microstructure. --- casting --- Al 6061 alloys --- shrinkage --- porosity --- steering knuckles --- Al alloys --- warm working --- mechanical properties --- dental materials --- metal posts --- computer-aided design (CAD) --- image analysis --- mechanical properties --- finite element analysis --- additive manufacturing --- Al alloys --- wear --- cavitation erosion --- SEM --- microstructure --- high speed steel --- nanostructured coatings --- thin films --- FEGSEM --- tribology --- Nb tube --- caliber-rolling --- grain boundaries --- texture --- electron backscatter diffraction --- damping --- aluminum film --- grain boundary --- anelasticity --- thin aluminum sheet --- alloys --- aeronautic applications --- mechanical properties --- corrosion resistance --- EBM --- SEBM --- macro-instrumented indentation test --- property-microstructure-process relationship --- mechanical properties --- indentation hardness --- indentation modulus --- tensile properties --- Ti-6Al-4V alloy --- ?-platelet thickness --- columnar microstructure --- n/a

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