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Type I Interferon in Human Autoimmunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193400 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-340-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The type I interferon system plays a critical role in host defense in health, and a growing body of literature suggests that type I interferon is a critical mediator of human autoimmune disease. Type I interferons function as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems, and as such play an important role in setting thresholds for response against self antigens. Many investigators have focused on the role type I interferons play in autoimmune disease. This fascinating and rapidly growing body of literature encompasses many different autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and others. In this Research Topic, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles type I interferons play in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on human immunology.

The Association of Other Autoimmune Diseases in Patients With Thyroid Autoimmunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456253 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-625-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders resulting from an immune dysregulation leading to a thyroid immune attack (Antonelli and Benvenga). Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two main clinical presentations of AITD, and their clinical hallmarks are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. In many cases, AITD may be associated in the same patient with other organ-specific autoimmune attacks (such as in the case of type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, or type I diabetes, etc). Furthermore, AITD and thyroid function abnormalities have been frequently described in patients with systemic rheumatologic autoimmune diseases. Conversely, patients affected with the above mentioned autoimmune disorders are more frequently affected by AITD.In this Research Topic, constituted by nineteen papers, we review and discuss new evidence about the association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with AITD. Among other organ-specific autoimmune disorders, the associations of AITD with chronic autoimmune gastritis (Cellini et al.), vitiligo (Baldini E et al.), lichen (Guarneri et al.), psoriasis (Ruffilli et al.), myasthenia gravis (Lopomo and Berrih-Aknin) and glomerulopathies (Santoro et al.) have been treated. Also the associations of AITD, in systemic autoimmune diseases have been treated (as Sjögren’s syndrome, Baldini C et al.; systemic sclerosis, Fallahi et al.; systemic lupus erythematosus, Ferrari et al.; Antiphospholipid syndrome, Versini; sarcoidosis, Fazzi et al.; the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, Watad et al.; rheumatoid arthritis, Bliddal et al.; Hepatitis C Virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia, Ferri et al.; and, psoriathic arthritis, Ruffilli et al.). Furthermore peculiar aspects associated with post partum thyroiditis have been reviewed too (Di Bari et al., Le Donne et al.).The exact pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the above reported associations are not completely known. It has been hypothesized that the influence of genetic (Coppedè), and environmental factors (Antonelli and Benvenga), could lead to the onset of autoimmune phenomena in different organs in the same subject, characterized by predominance of a Th1 immune pattern at the beginning, and in the active phase of these disorders.In conclusion, an association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with thyroid autoimmunity has been shown, and this Research Topic provides an extensive update of the literature, and suggests interesting points for new investigations.

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039217144 9783039217151 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-715-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

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