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Towards an Integrated Approach to Measurement, Analysis and Modeling of Cortical Networks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197620 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-762-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The amount of data being produced by neuroscientists is increasing rapidly, driven by advances in neuroimaging and recording techniques spanning multiple scales of resolution. The availability of such data poses significant challenges for their processing and interpretation. To gain a deeper understanding of the surrounding issues, the Editors of this e-Book reached out to an interdisciplinary community, and formed the Cortical Networks Working Group. The genesis of this e-Book thus began with this Working Group through support from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in the USA. The Group consisted of scientists from neuroscience, physics, psychology and computer science, and meetings were held in person (a detailed list of the group members is presented in the Editorial that follows). At the time we started, in 2010, the term “big data” was hardly in existence, though the volume of data we were handling would certainly have qualified. Furthermore, there was significant interest in harnessing the power of supercomputers to perform large scale neuronal simulations, and in creating specialized hardware to mimic neural function. We realized that the various disciplines represented in our Group could and should work together to accelerate progress in Neuroscience. We searched for common threads that could define the foundation for an integrated approach to solve important problems in the field. We adopted a network-centric perspective to address these challenges, as the data are derived from structures that are themselves network-like. We proposed three inter-twined threads, consisting of measurement of neural activity, analysis of network structures deduced from this activity, and modeling of network function, leading to theoretical insights. This approach formed the foundation of our initial call for papers. When we issued the call for papers, we were not sure how many papers would fall into each of these threads. We were pleased that we found significant interest in each thread, and the number of submissions exceeded our expectations. This is an indication that the field of neuroscience is ripe for the type of integration and interchange that we had anticipated. We first published a special topics issue after we received a sufficient number of submissions. This is now being converted to an e-book to strengthen the coherence of its contributions. One of the strong themes emerging in this e-book is that network-based measures capture better the dynamics of brain processes, and provide features with greater discriminative power than point-based measures. Another theme is the importance of network oscillations and synchrony. Current research is shedding light on the principles that govern the establishment and maintenance of network oscillation states. These principles could explain why there is impaired synchronization between different brain areas in schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients. Such research could ultimately provide the foundation for an understanding of other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. The chapters in this book cover these three main threads related to cortical networks. Some authors have combined two or more threads within a single chapter. We expect the availability of related work appearing in a single e-book to help our readers see the connection between different research efforts, and spur further insights and research.

The olivo-cerebellar system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198269 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-826-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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During the last decades, investigations on the olivo-cerebellar system have attained a high level of sophistication, which led to redefinitions of several structural and functional properties of neurons, synapses, connections and circuits. Research has expanded and deepened in so many directions and so many theories and models have been proposed that an ensemble review of the matter is now needed. Yet, hot topics remain open and scientific discussion is very lively at several fronts. One major question, here as well as in other major brain circuits, is how single neurons and synaptic properties emerge at the network level and contribute to behavioural regulation via neuronal plasticity. Other major aspects that this Research Topic covers and discusses include the development and circuit organization of the olivo-cerebellar network, the established and recent theories of learning and motor control, and the emerging role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing. By touching on such varied and encompassing subjects, this Frontiers Special Topic aims to highlight the state of the art and stimulate future research. We hope that this unique collection of high-quality articles from experts in the field will provide scientists with a powerful basis of knowledge and inspiration to enucleate the major issues deserving further attention.

Correlated neuronal activity and its relationship to coding, dynamics and network architecture

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193578 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-357-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Correlated activity in populations of neurons has been observed in many brain regions and plays a central role in cortical coding, attention, and network dynamics. Accurately quantifying neuronal correlations presents several difficulties. For example, despite recent advances in multicellular recording techniques, the number of neurons from which spiking activity can be simultaneously recorded remains orders magnitude smaller than the size of local networks. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on the distribution of pairwise spike cross correlations obtained in extracellular multi-unit recordings. These challenges highlight the need for theoretical and computational approaches to understand how correlations emerge and to decipher their functional role in the brain.

The Cognitive Thalamus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195411 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-541-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Cognitive processing is commonly conceptualized as being restricted to the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, electrophysiology, neuroimaging and lesion studies involving human and animal subjects have almost exclusively focused on defining roles for cerebral cortical areas in cognition. Roles for the thalamus in cognition have been largely ignored despite the fact that the extensive connectivity between the thalamus and cerebral cortex gives rise to a closely coupled thalamo-cortical system. However, in recent years, growing interest in the thalamus as much more than a passive sensory structure, as well as methodological advances such as high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of the thalamus and improved electrode targeting to subregions of thalamic nuclei using electrical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging, have fostered research into thalamic contributions to cognition.Evidence suggests that behavioral context modulates processing in primary sensory, or first-order, thalamic nuclei (for example, the lateral geniculate and ventral posterior nuclei), allowing attentional filtering of incoming sensory information at an early stage of brain processing. Behavioral context appears to more strongly influence higher-order thalamic nuclei (for example, the pulvinar and mediodorsal nucleus), which receive major input from the cortex rather than the sensory periphery. Such higher-order thalamic nuclei have been shown to regulate information transmission in frontal and higher-order sensory cortex according to cognitive demands. This Research Topic aims to bring together neuroscientists who study different parts of the thalamus, particularly thalamic nuclei other than the primary sensory relays, and highlight the thalamic contributions to attention, memory, reward processing, decision-making, and language. By doing so, an emphasis is also placed on neural mechanisms common to many, if not all, of these cognitive operations, such as thalamo-cortical interactions and modulatory influences from sources in the brainstem and basal ganglia. The overall view that emerges is that the thalamus is a vital node in brain networks supporting cognition.

The Evolution of Rhythm Cognition: Timing in Music and Speech

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455003 Year: Pages: 391 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-500-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Human speech and music share a number of similarities and differences. One of the closest similarities is their temporal nature as both (i) develop over time, (ii) form sequences of temporal intervals, possibly differing in duration and acoustical marking by different spectral properties, which are perceived as a rhythm, and (iii) generate metrical expectations. Human brains are particularly efficient in perceiving, producing, and processing fine rhythmic information in music and speech. However a number of critical questions remain to be answered: Where does this human sensitivity for rhythm arise? How did rhythm cognition develop in human evolution? How did environmental rhythms affect the evolution of brain rhythms? Which rhythm-specific neural circuits are shared between speech and music, or even with other domains? Evolutionary processes’ long time scales often prevent direct observation: understanding the psychology of rhythm and its evolution requires a close-fitting integration of different perspectives. First, empirical observations of music and speech in the field are contrasted and generate testable hypotheses. Experiments exploring linguistic and musical rhythm are performed across sensory modalities, ages, and animal species to address questions about domain-specificity, development, and an evolutionary path of rhythm. Finally, experimental insights are integrated via synthetic modeling, generating testable predictions about brain oscillations underlying rhythm cognition and its evolution. Our understanding of the cognitive, neurobiological, and evolutionary bases of rhythm is rapidly increasing. However, researchers in different fields often work on parallel, potentially converging strands with little mutual awareness. This research topic builds a bridge across several disciplines, focusing on the cognitive neuroscience of rhythm as an evolutionary process. It includes contributions encompassing, although not limited to: (1) developmental and comparative studies of rhythm (e.g. critical acquisition periods, innateness); (2) evidence of rhythmic behavior in other species, both spontaneous and in controlled experiments; (3) comparisons of rhythm processing in music and speech (e.g. behavioral experiments, systems neuroscience perspectives on music-speech networks); (4) evidence on rhythm processing across modalities and domains; (5) studies on rhythm in interaction and context (social, affective, etc.); (6) mathematical and computational (e.g. connectionist, symbolic) models of “rhythmicity” as an evolved behavior.

Festival Romanistica. Contribuciones lingüísticas – Contributions linguistiques – Contributi linguistici – Contribuições linguísticas

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Book Series: Stockholm Studies in Romance Languages ISBN: 9789176350119 9789176350089 9789176350096 9789176350102 Year: DOI: 10.16993/bac Language: Italian
Publisher: Stockholm University Press Grant: Åke Wibergs stiftelse, Stockholm, Department of Romance and Classical Studies, Stockholm University
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-11 11:01:04
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Festival Romanisticais an edited volume with 19 contributions written in four Romance languages: French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. The volume represents the whole range of research areas in Romance Linguistics today at the University of Stockholm: semantics, syntax, pragmatics, discourse analysis, diachronic linguistics, translation studies and second language acquisition and use. Five of the articles are written by renowned scholars from five European universities. The authors of the remaining 14 contributions are doctors and supervisors belonging to the National Doctoral Program in Romance Languages (FoRom). By virtue of its wide scope and the high quality of its contributions, this volume is of interest for, and will find a natural audience among, researchers of all Romance Languages departments and divisions in Scandinavia, Europe and worldwide.Festival Romanisticais the first volume in Stockholm Studies in Romance Languages, which is a peer-reviewed series of monographs and edited volumes.Editors:Gunnel Engwall is Professor of Romance Languages, especially French, at Stockholm University. She has been Vice-Chancellor of Stockholm University and President of the Academy of Letters, Antiquity and History and is presently the Head of the National Edition of August Strindberg’s Collected Works. Lars Fant is Professor emeritus of Romance Languages, especially Spanish and Portuguese, at Stockholm University. He is the also Chief Editor of the series Stockholm Studies in Romance Languages.

On looking into words (and beyond): Structures, Relations, Analyses

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Book Series: Empirically Oriented Theoretical Morphology and Syntax ISBN: 9783946234920 9783946234975 9783946234814 Year: Pages: 609 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.495467 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-29 11:01:35
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"On Looking into Words is a wide-ranging volume spanning current research into word structure and morphology, with a focus on historical linguistics and linguistic theory. The papers are offered as a tribute to Stephen R. Anderson, the Dorothy R. Diebold Professor of Linguistics at Yale, who is retiring at the end of the 2016-2017 academic year. The contributors are friends, colleagues, and former students of Professor Anderson, all important contributors to linguistics in their own right. As is typical for such volumes, the contributions span a variety of topics relating to the interests of the honorand. In this case, the central contributions that Anderson has made to so many areas of linguistics and cognitive science, drawing on synchronic and diachronic phenomena in diverse linguistic systems, are represented through the papers in the volume. The 26 papers that constitute this volume are unified by their discussion of the interplay between synchrony and diachrony, theory and empirical results, and the role of diachronic evidence in understanding the nature of language. Central concerns of the volume include morphological gaps, learnability, increases and declines in productivity, and the interaction of different components of the grammar. The papers deal with a range of linked synchronic and diachronic topics in phonology, morphology, and syntax (in particular, cliticization), and their implications for linguistic theory."

Dynamics Days Latin America and the Caribbean 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215034 9783039215041 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-504-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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This book contains various works presented at the Dynamics Days Latin America and the Caribbean (DDays LAC) 2018. Since its beginnings, a key goal of the DDays LAC has been to promote cross-fertilization of ideas from different areas within nonlinear dynamics. On this occasion, the contributions range from experimental to theoretical research, including (but not limited to) chaos, control theory, synchronization, statistical physics, stochastic processes, complex systems and networks, nonlinear time-series analysis, computational methods, fluid dynamics, nonlinear waves, pattern formation, population dynamics, ecological modeling, neural dynamics, and systems biology. The interested reader will find this book to be a useful reference in identifying ground-breaking problems in Physics, Mathematics, Engineering, and Interdisciplinary Sciences, with innovative models and methods that provide insightful solutions. This book is a must-read for anyone looking for new developments of Applied Mathematics and Physics in connection with complex systems, synchronization, neural dynamics, fluid dynamics, ecological networks, and epidemics.

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