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Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452804 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-280-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The research topic here features nine studies supplementing the state-of-the art of the knowledge on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of FMD in swine.

Control of Pestivirus Infections in the Management of Wildlife Populations

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450220 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-022-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Infections with recognized and putative species of the genus pestivirus are not host-specific and are documented in many wildlife species. The study of pestivirus infections in wildlife species is important both to eradication programs and programs for maintaining the health and well-being of wildlife populations. Free-ranging wildlife species may act as reservoirs for pestiviruses that infect domestic species. For this reason, eradication efforts for classical swine fever virus include control of the virus in wild boar populations. The contribution of free-ranging species to the circulation of BVDV1, BVDV2, and BDV is less well understood. While substantial damage due to pestivirus infections has been demonstrated in a few specific wildlife populations, the impact of pestiviral infections on the well-being of most captive and free-ranging wildlife populations is largely unknown. The research topics summarizes our current understanding of pestiviral infections in wildlife and discusses the challenges in understanding and mediating their impact on captive and free ranging wildlife species.

Environmental Enrichment of Pigs

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ISBN: 9783039280780 9783039280797 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-079-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Pigs have a strong motivation to explore and root. In conventional pig husbandry systems, this need is difficult to fulfil, unless adequate enrichment materials are provided. This book summarises how enrichment strategies for pigs have evolved over the last few decades in different countries and provides a vast array of possibilities to enhance the exploratory needs of pigs. The role of enrichment material on avoidance of tail biting outbreaks or as an element triggering positive emotions in pigs is also discussed.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

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ISBN: 9783038970316 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280728 9783039280735 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-073-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic and diverse multigene locus in all jawed vertebrate species that has an integral role in adaptive/innate immune systems, transplantation, and infectious and autoimmune diseases. The MHC supra-locus in mammalian vertebrates is usually partitioned into three distinct regions, known as classes I, II, and III, which, to varying extents, can be found conserved in nonmammalian jawed vertebrates, such as bony fish, amphibians, and bird lineages. The MHC gene region is characterized particularly by the expression of class I and class II glycoproteins that bind peptides derived from intracellular or extracellular antigens to circulating T-cells. While this expressed antigenic specificity remains the predominant interest with respect to MHC function and polymorphism in a population, a broader concept has emerged that examines the MHC as a multifunctional polymorphic controller that facilitates and regulates genome diversity with a much greater array of functions and effects than just MHC-restricted antigen recognition. This volume of 19 reprints presented by various experts and collected from the Special Issue of Cells on “MHC in Health and Disease” covers a broad range of topics on the genomic diversity of the MHC regulatory system in various vertebrate species, including MHC class I, II, and III genes; innate and adaptive immunity; neurology; transplantation; haplotypes; infectious and autoimmune diseases; fecundity; conservation; allelic lineages; and evolution. Taken together, these articles demonstrate the immense complexity and diversity of the MHC structure and function within and between different vertebrate species.

Keywords

MHC-I- and MHC-II-dependent inter-individual recognition --- MHC-II-associated sperm-egg recognition --- MHC-I-based mother-fetus recognition --- giant panda --- long-fragment super haplotype --- MHC --- genetic drift --- haplotype --- crested ibis --- founder effect --- bottleneck --- conservation genetics --- selection --- fish --- MHC --- polymorphism --- disease resistance --- quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies --- evolution --- HCP5 --- lncRNA --- MHC --- HLA --- human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) --- cancer --- autoimmune diseases --- competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) --- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- human papillomavirus (HPV) --- astrogliosis --- PNS/CNS interface --- microglial reaction --- synaptic covering --- ?2m knockout mice --- HLA-B27 --- viral peptides --- computational analysis --- ankylosing spondylitis --- KIR --- KIR–HLA pairs --- ethnic populations in China --- molecular dynamics simulation --- major histocompatibility complex --- antigen --- T-cell receptor --- domain movements --- autoimmunity --- risk genes --- expression --- regulation --- swine leukocyte antigen --- reproductive performance --- production trait --- haplotype --- micro-mini-pigs --- disease association --- haplotype --- HLA polymorphism --- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) --- pedigree --- phase --- protocol --- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) --- T1DGC --- type 1 diabetes (T1D) --- BK virus --- polyomavirus --- nephropathy --- human leukocyte antigen-E --- kidney transplantation --- MHC --- ancestral haplotype --- autoimmune disease --- cynomolgus macaque --- Macaca fascicularis --- MHC polymorphism --- experimental medicine --- nonhuman primate models --- DXO --- DOM3Z --- NELF-E --- RD --- SKIV2L --- SKI2W --- STK19 --- RP1 --- NSDK --- RLR --- miR1236 --- SVA --- RNA quality control --- 5??3? RNA decay --- 3??5? mRNA turnover --- antiviral immunity --- interferon ? --- promoter-proximal transcriptional pause --- exosomes --- nuclear kinase --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- Ski complex --- trichohepatoenteric syndrome --- melanoma --- major histocompatibility complex --- MHC --- evolution --- nonclassical --- fish --- MHC genes --- birds --- disease resistance --- orthology --- life history --- gene duplication --- long-read sequencing --- high-throughput sequencing --- concerted evolution --- ecology --- MHC --- major histocompatibility complex --- Old World camels --- camels --- dromedary --- Bactrian camel --- SNP --- n/a

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