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Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals from Remote Sensing

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ISBN: 9783038974796 9783038974802 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-480-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-14 10:39:15
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This book covers topics ranging from a detailed error analysis of SSTs to new applications employed, for example, in the study of the El Niño–La Niña Southern Oscillation, lake temperatures, and coral bleaching. New techniques for interpolation and algorithm development are presented, including improvements for cloud detection. Analysis of the pixel-to-pixel uncertainties provides insight to applications for high spatial resolutions. New approaches for the estimation and evaluation of SSTs are presented. In addition, an overview of the Climate Change Initiative, with specific applications to SST, is presented. The book provides an excellent overview of the current technology, while also highlighting new technologies and their applications to new missions.

Urban Overheating - Progress on Mitigation Science and Engineering Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976363 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-637-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The combination of global warming and urban sprawl is the origin of the most hazardous climate change effect detected at urban level: Urban Heat Island, representing the urban overheating respect to the countryside surrounding the city. This book includes 18 papers representing the state of the art of detection, assessment mitigation and adaption to urban overheating. Advanced methods, strategies and technologies are here analyzed including relevant issues as: the role of urban materials and fabrics on urban climate and their potential mitigation, the impact of greenery and vegetation to reduce urban temperatures and improve the thermal comfort, the role the urban geometry in the air temperature rise, the use of satellite and ground data to assess and quantify the urban overheating and develop mitigation solutions, calculation methods and application to predict and assess mitigation scenarios. The outcomes of the book are thus relevant for a wide multidisciplinary audience, including: environmental scientists and engineers, architect and urban planners, policy makers and students.

Keywords

heat health --- meteorological modeling --- urban climate --- urban-climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban heat island index --- Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) --- green area --- built-up area --- air temperature --- measurement --- calculation --- urbanization --- air and surface temperature measurements --- outdoor thermal comfort --- urban heat island --- surface cool island effect --- urban overheating --- urban microclimate --- mitigation strategies --- urban development --- park cool island --- urban cooling --- urban morphology --- micro-climate simulations --- ageing --- emissivity --- measurement --- solar reflectance --- solar reflectance index --- thermal emittance --- urban heat island --- land surface temperature --- “hot spots” --- “cold spots” --- MODIS downscaling --- overheating --- summer heat stress --- urban open space --- shading --- thermal comfort --- Physiologically Equivalent Temperature --- mitigation strategies --- cooling technologies --- cool materials --- WRF-Chem --- urban climate --- air quality --- urban heat island --- surface albedo --- climatic perception --- urban areas --- thermal comfort --- subtropical climate --- cool pavements --- road lighting --- urban heat island --- road surface --- material characterization --- luminance coefficient --- energy savings --- Euramet --- EMPIR 16NRM02 --- building energy performance --- energy simulation --- building retrofit --- multi-objective optimization --- genetic algorithm --- urban overheating --- cost-optimal analysis --- lifecycle analysis --- office buildings --- sustainability --- air temperature --- spectral analysis --- multifractal analysis --- structure functions analysis --- cool roofs --- fine-resolution meteorological modeling --- mobile temperature observations --- urban climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban vegetation --- urbanized WRF --- Weather Research and Forecasting model --- multiple linear regression --- urban heat island --- urban climatology --- urban energy balance --- air temperature --- land cover fraction --- urban morphology --- land surface temperature --- heat stress --- urban heat mitigation --- albedo --- cool facades --- spectral reflectance --- urban remote sensing --- empirical line method --- building scale --- local climate zone --- urban climate --- sky view factor --- morphological indicator --- open science --- GIS --- urban heat island --- urban overheating --- non-constructible parcels --- cool surfaces --- urban vegetation --- ENVI-met --- mitigation measures --- Beirut

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

Uncertainty Quantification Techniques in Statistics

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ISBN: 9783039285464 / 9783039285471 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-547-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is a mainstream research topic in applied mathematics and statistics. To identify UQ problems, diverse modern techniques for large and complex data analyses have been developed in applied mathematics, computer science, and statistics. This Special Issue of Mathematics (ISSN 2227-7390) includes diverse modern data analysis methods such as skew-reflected-Gompertz information quantifiers with application to sea surface temperature records, the performance of variable selection and classification via a rank-based classifier, two-stage classification with SIS using a new filter ranking method in high throughput data, an estimation of sensitive attribute applying geometric distribution under probability proportional to size sampling, combination of ensembles of regularized regression models with resampling-based lasso feature selection in high dimensional data, robust linear trend test for low-coverage next-generation sequence data controlling for covariates, and comparing groups of decision-making units in efficiency based on semiparametric regression.

Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (ET)

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ISBN: 9783039216024 9783039216031 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-603-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the water and energy balances, and the number of remote sensing-based ET products and estimation methods has increased in recent years. Various aspects of remote sensing of ET are reported in the 11 papers published in this book. The major research areas covered by this book include inter-comparison and performance evaluation of widely used one- and two-source energy balance models, a new dual-source model (Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration, SPARSE), and a process-based model (ETMonitor); assessment of multi-source (e.g., remote sensing, reanalysis, and land surface model) ET products; development or improvement of data fusion frameworks to predict continuous daily ET at a high spatial resolution (field-scale or 30 m) by fusing the advanced spaceborne thermal emission reflectance radiometer (ASTER), the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Landsat data; and investigating uncertainties in ET estimates using an ET ensemble composed of several land surface models and diagnostic datasets. The effects of the differences between ET products on water resources and ecosystem management were also investigated. More accurate ET estimates and improved understanding of remotely sensed ET products are crucial for maximizing crop productivity while minimizing water losses and management costs.

Cleaner Combustion

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ISBN: 9783039214778 9783039214785 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-478-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This volume provides unique views of combustion from many technical and international research perspectives.

ASTER 20th Anniversary

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ISBN: 9783039286843 / 9783039286850 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-685-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a research facility instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft. We celebrated the 20th anniversary of ASTER’s launch in December 1999. ASTER has been providing high spatial resolution multispectral data in the VNIR, SWIR, and TIR regions, and along-track stereo data. Starting April 2016, ASTER data have been distributed to the public at no cost. Another important and the most popular data set is the ASTER Global DEM, which covers almost the entire land surface at a 30 m grid size. ASTER data have been widely used in a variety of application areas such as land surface mapping and change detection, volcano and other natural hazard monitoring, mineral exploration, and urban heat island monitoring. This Special Issue consists of 12 papers (2 reviews, 9 articles, and 1 technical note) and covers topics including development of new techniques to process ASTER data, calibration activities to ensure long-term consistency of ASTER data, validation of the ASTER data products, and scientific achievements using ASTER data.

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Sea Surface Salinity Remote Sensing

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210763 9783039210770 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-077-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue gathers papers reporting research on various aspects of remote sensing of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and the use of satellite SSS in oceanography. It includes contributions presenting improvements in empirical or theoretical radiative transfer models; mitigation techniques of external interference such as RFI and land contamination; comparisons and validation of remote sensing products with in situ observations; retrieval techniques for improved coastal SSS monitoring, high latitude SSS and the assessment of ocean interactions with the cryosphere; and data fusion techniques combining SSS with sea surface temperature (SST). New instrument technology for the future of SSS remote sensing is also presented.

Keywords

sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- mediterranean sea --- smos --- alboran sea --- data processing --- quality assessment --- MICAP --- forward model --- combined active/passive SSS retrieval algorithm --- different instrument configurations --- retrieval errors --- SMAP --- sea surface salinity --- Arctic Ocean --- sea ice --- river discharge --- Arctic Gateways --- sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- aquarius --- SMAP --- retrieval algorithm --- calibration --- validation --- satellite salinity --- Gulf of Maine --- bias characteristics --- Scotian Shelf --- Aquarius satellite --- sea surface salinity --- Aquarius Validation Data System (AVDS) --- ocean salinity --- microwave remote sensing --- remote sensing --- sea surface salinity --- SMAP --- SMOS --- Gulf of Mexico --- validation --- coastal --- salinity --- upwelling --- sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- Arctic ocean --- SMOS --- Arctic rivers --- data processing --- quality assessment --- Aquarius --- Argo --- Sea Surface Salinity --- Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM) --- interferometric microwave imager (IMI) --- one-dimensional (1D) aperture synthesis radiometer --- sea surface salinity (SSS) --- brightness temperature (TB) --- sea surface salinity --- microwave radiometry --- remote sensing --- calibration --- retrieval algorithm --- validation --- Aquarius --- SMOS --- SMAP --- sea surface temperature --- sea surface salinity --- SMOS --- retroflections --- surface velocity --- water transport --- salt transport --- n/a --- sea surface salinity --- ocean surface roughness --- microwave radiometry --- remote sensing --- forward model --- retrieval algorithm

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