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Marine Biomolecules

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196616 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-661-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Abstract

Oceans include the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature and light, and habitats can range from tropical waters to ocean trenches, several kilometers below sea level at high pressure. With its 70% of the surface of our planet marine ecosystem still remains largely unexplored, understudied and underexploited in comparison with terrestrial ecosystems, organisms and bioprocesses. The biological adaptation of marine organisms to a wide range of environmental conditions in the specific environment (temperature, salinity, tides, pressure, radiation, light, etc.) has made them an enormous reservoir of interesting biological material for both basic research and biotechnological improvements. As a consequence marine ecosystem is valued as a source of enzymes and other biomolecules exhibiting new functions and activities to fulfill human needs. Indeed, in recent years it has been recognised as an untapped source of novel enzymes and metabolites even though, with regard to the assignment of precise biological functions to genes, proteins and enzymes, it is still considered as the least developed. Using metagenomics to recover genetic material directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed but despite the contributions from metagenomic technologies the new field requires major improvements. A few words on the complexity of marine environments should be added here. This complexity ranges from symbiotic relationships to biology and chemistry of defence mechanisms and from chemoecology of marine invasions up to the strategies found in prokaryotes to adapt to extreme environments. The interdisciplinary study of this complexity will enable researchers to find an arsenal of enzymes and pathways greatly demanded in biotechnological applications. As far as marine enzymes are concerned they may carry novel chemical and stereochemical properties, thus biocatalytically oriented studies (testing of suitable substrates, appropriate checking of reaction conditions, study of stereochemical asset of catalysis) should be performed to appropriately reveal this “chemical biodiversity” which increases interest for these enzymes. Among other biomolecules, polysaccharides are the most abundant renewable biomaterial found on land and in oceans. Their molecular diversity is very interesting; except polysaccharides used traditionally in food and non-food industries, the structure and the functionality of most of them are unknown and unexplored. Brown seaweeds synthesize unique bioactive polysaccharides: laminarans, alginic acids and fucoidans. A wide range of biological activities (anticoagulant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, etc.) have been attributed to fucoidans and their role with respect to structure-activity relationship is still under debate. In this Research Topic, we wish to centralize and review contributions, idea and comments related to the issues above. In particular results of enzymatic bioprospecting in gross marine environment will be acknowledged along with research for structural characterization and biological function of biomolecules such as marine polysaccharides and all kind of research related to the complexity of bioprocesses in marine environments. Inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to this field is favoured in this Research Topic and could greatly be facilitated by the web and open access nature as well.

Analysis of Peptides and Proteins by Electrophoretic Techniques

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ISBN: 9783039212279 / 9783039212286 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-228-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The characterization of peptides and proteins is central to understanding their function and expression in biological matrices. Moreover, these macromolecules are important biomarkers of many human diseases. In recent years, the performance of separation techniques based on electromigration have significantly increased. The development of microdevices has reduced sample consumption and waste production while high-sensitivity detectors, such as mass spectrometry (MS) or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), have significantly improved with regards to separation efficiency and detection limits. All of these advancements have led to appreciably enlarged fields of application. Nowadays, a multitude of studies using separation techniques based on electromigration to study proteins and peptides from numerous real matrices are available in the literature. This Special Issue covers the most recent knowledge and advances in the study of peptides and proteins using several electrophoresis techniques, as well as the characterization of relevant proteins and peptides in application areas such as clinical studies, functional foods, and toxicology.

Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology

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ISBN: 9783039214952 / 9783039214969 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-496-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The endometrium has been the subject of intense research in a variety of clinical settings, because of its importance in the reproductive process and its role in women’s health. In the past 15 years, significant efforts have been invested in defining the molecular phenotype of the receptive phase endometrium as well as of various endometrial pathologies. Although this has generated a wealth of information on the molecular landscape of human endometrium, there is a need to complement this information in light of the novel methodologies and innovative technical approaches. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms of endometrium and endometrium-related disorders. The progress made in the molecular actions of steroids, in the metabolism of steroids and intracrinology, in endometrial intracellular pathways, in stem cells biology, as well as in the molecular alterations underlying endometrium-related pathologies has been the focus of the reviews and papers included.

Keywords

RANK --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- prognosis --- immunohistochemistry --- gene expression --- endometriosis --- developmental pathway --- pathogenomics --- mesenchymal stem cells --- endometrial cancer --- mtDNA mutations --- deficit of complex I --- antioxidant response --- mitochondrial biogenesis --- mitochondrial dynamics --- mitophagy --- miRNA --- lncRNAs --- endometrial cancer --- endometriosis --- chronic endometritis --- cell contacts --- tight junction --- adherens junction --- gap junction --- endometrium --- implantation --- decidualization --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- liquid biopsy --- uterine aspirate --- circulating tumour cells (CTCs) --- circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) --- exosomes --- Vitamin D --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- endometrial cancer --- preclinical models --- translational research --- endometrial cancer --- type II endometrial carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- kinase inhibitor --- molecular marker --- protein kinase --- protein phosphatase --- PP2A --- PPP2R1A --- SMAP --- endometriosis --- infertility --- niche --- inflammation --- immunomodulation --- mesenchymal stem cell --- orthoxenograft --- uterine cancer --- avatar --- murine models --- personalized medicine --- targeted therapy --- preclinical studies --- translational research --- endometriosis --- TRP channels --- endometrial stromal cells --- eutopic and ectopic endometrium --- endometrial cell --- pathway --- proliferation --- decidualization --- migration --- angiogenesis --- regeneration --- breakdown --- implantation --- endometrial cancer --- orthotopic xenograft model --- estrogen dependent --- bioluminescence imaging --- contrast-enhanced CT scan --- endometrium --- adult stem cells --- endometrial regeneration --- stem cell markers --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- decidualisation --- oestradiol --- aromatase --- testosterone --- dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- sulfatase --- endometriosis --- ectopic stroma --- microRNA --- small RNA sequencing --- EDN1 --- HOXA10 --- miR-139-5p --- miR-375 --- CTCF --- tumour suppressor gene --- haploinsufficiency --- zinc finger --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- cancer --- endometrial cancer --- gene editing --- phosphoinositide 3-kinase --- PIK3CA --- PIK3CB --- p110? --- p110? --- endometrial cancer --- LGR5 --- endometrium --- endometriosis --- menstrual cycle --- macrophages

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