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Alloy Steel: Properties and Use First-Principles Quantum Mechanical Approach to Stainless Steel Alloys (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789533074849 Year: DOI: 10.5772/26131 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228074
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:57
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Abstract

Accurate description of materials requires the most advanced atomic-scale techniques from both experimental and theoretical areas. In spite of the vast number of available techniques,&#xD;&#xD;however, the experimental study of the atomic-scale properties and phenomena even in&#xD;&#xD;simple solids is rather difficult. In steels the challenges become more complex due to the&#xD;&#xD;interplay between the structural, chemical and magnetic effects. On the other hand,&#xD;&#xD;advanced computational methods based on density functional theory ensure a proper&#xD;&#xD;platform for studying the fundamental properties of steel materials from first-principles. In&#xD;&#xD;1980’s the first-principles description of the thermodynamic properties of elemental iron&#xD;&#xD;was still on the borderline of atomistic simulations. Today the numerous application-&#xD;oriented activities at the industrial and academic sectors are paired by a rapidly increasing&#xD;&#xD;scientific interest. This is reflected by the number of publications on ab initio steel research,&#xD;&#xD;which has increased from null to about one thousand within the last two decades. Our&#xD;&#xD;research group has a well established position in developing and applying computational&#xD;&#xD;codes for steel related applications. Using our ab initio tools, we have presented an insight to&#xD;&#xD;the electronic and magnetic structure, and micromechanical properties of austenite and&#xD;&#xD;ferrite stainless steel alloys. In the present contribution, we review the most important&#xD;&#xD;developments within the ab initio quantum mechanics aided steel design with special emphasis&#xD;&#xD;on the role of magnetism on the fundamental properties of alloy steels.

Keywords

steel --- stainless steel

Modeling of Helium Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Neutron Irradiated RAFM Steels

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449015 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: XXII, 159 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000029282 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels are first candidate structural materials in future fusion technology. In this work a physically based model using Rate Theory is developed to describe nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. Several modifications of the basic diffusion limited model are presented allowing a comprehensive view of clustering effects and their influence on expected helium bubble size distributions.

Alloy Steels

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ISBN: 9783038428831 9783038428848 Year: Pages: X, 320 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 14:03:05
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Alloy steels play a pivotal role in modern society. Their continued development improves the human condition for everyone on earth. Their broad use has resulted in a wide variety of continuing challenges to address economic, manufacturing, and industrial issues. This book contains twenty-three papers covering a wide cross-section of alloy steels and technical problems. Readers interested in solving current manufacturing and application problems will find this issue helpful. The papers contained within cover a wide range of topics by a broad set of authors from across the globe. There are papers covering structure–property relations on various alloys. Other papers discuss the proper processing of alloy steels through the welding, electroslag remelting, and rolling processes. A significant number of the papers cover optimizing the heat treatment of traditional alloys as well as new alloys. There are papers that concentrate on providing real-world performance data on alloy steels, an important but under-studied topic. Of particular interest is a review on the welding of austenitic and duplex stainless steels that gives neophytes and experienced researchers an excellent introduction to the state-of-the-art. This collection of work should be valuable to anyone interested in alloy steels.

Keywords

Steels --- Alloy --- Welding --- Rolling --- Corrosion --- Stainless Steel --- Casting

Fatigue crack detection on structural steel members by using ultrasound excited thermography = Erkennung von Ermüdungsrissen in Stahlbauteilen durch ultraschallangeregte Thermografie

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Book Series: Berichte zum Stahl- und Leichtbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Versuchsanstalt für Stahl, Holz und Steine, Stahl- und Leichtbau ISSN: 21987912 ISBN: 9783731504177 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: XVI, 334 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000048191 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 19:59:17
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Ultrasound excitation of structural steel members leads to localised energy dissipation at existent fatigue cracks and thus allows for thermographic flaw detection. Essential effects on the defect-selective heating, such as flaw size, plate thickness, crack mouth opening or static preload, are systematically investigated. Laser vibrometry measurements of the crack edges, theoretical modelling of frictional heating and numerical simulations contribute to the understanding of the involved physics.

Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Deep Drawing DC04 Steel at Different Length Scales

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ISBN: 9783866449671 Year: Pages: XIII, 162 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032165 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The deformation behavior of steels is strongly influenced by their microstructure which is a result of the alloying elements and thermal treatments. In this work, the microstructure and the deformation behavior of a non-alloyed deep drawing DC04 steel was investigated. The microstructure was analyzed during heat treatment by EBSD, then microcompression experiments were performed on selected microstructural units and then bulk steel samples were mechanically tested by tensile experiments.

Work-hardening of dual-phase steel

Author:
Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731505136 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: XIII, 175 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000054047 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Dual-phase steels exhibit good mechanical properties due to a microstructure of strong martensitic inclusions embedded in a ductile ferritic matrix. This work presents a two-scale model for the underlying work-hardening effects; such as the distinctly different hardening rates observed for high-strength dual-phase steels. The model is based on geometrically necessary dislocations and comprises the average microstructural morphology as well as a direct interaction between the constituents.

Bemessung von Erzeugnissen aus Stahlguss unter vorwiegend ruhender Beanspruchung

Author:
Book Series: Berichte zum Stahl- und Leichtbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Versuchsanstalt für Stahl, Holz und Steine, Stahl- und Leichtbau ISSN: 21987912 ISBN: 9783731505600 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: XVIII, 210 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000057630 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Since the internal condition directly influences the calculated component resistance by using cast steel, the requirement of a quality grade already has to be determined during the design and planning phase. However, there is currently no decision-making on the selection of a quality level depending on the load. Therefore, two design concepts are developed for the load-bearing capacity of steel castings depending on the grades.

Ultrafine-Grained Metals

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ISBN: 9783038425243 9783038425250 Year: Pages: VIII, 181 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:58:00
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Ultrafine-grained metallic materials produced by severe plastic deformation methods are at the cutting edge of modern materials science. UFG-metals exhibit outstanding properties which make them very interesting for structural or functional engineering applications. Fifteen articles in this special issue address a broad variety of topics: New developments in severe plastic deformation techniques, advances in modeling and simulation of the severe plastic deformation processes, mechanical properties under monotonic and cyclic loading of homogenous and graded UFG structures, dominating deformation mechanisms in UFG materials, advances and strategies for high conductivity UFG-materials, correlation between severe plastic deformation parameters and resulting materials properties and peculiarities in the corrosion behavior of UFG materials. The book covers latest results on ultrafine-grained titanium, aluminum and copper alloys and on UFG iron and steels and thus provides a deep insight to current research activities in the field of ultrafine-grained metals.

On the structure-property correlation and the evolution of Nanofeatures in 12-13.5% Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731501411 Year: Volume: 31 Pages: XX, 199 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037337 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Main objective of this work is to develop, by systematic variation of the chemical composition, and TMP, 14% Cr nano-structured ferritic alloys with significantly improved high-temperature properties compared to currently available ODS alloys. Application of state-of-the-art characterization tools shall lead to an integrated understanding of structure-property correlation and the formation mechanism of nanoparticles.

Characterization and Modeling of the Ratcheting Behavior of the Ferritic-Martensitic Steel P91

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731505037 Year: Volume: 59 Pages: XXV, 180 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000053265 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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In this work, the ratcheting-behavior of 9%Cr-1%Mo ferritic–martensitic steel is studied with uniaxial cyclic loading. To describe the ratcheting-behavior of this steel, a visco-plastic constitutive model with consideration of cyclic softening of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steels is further modified, based on the analysis of back stress.

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