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Membrane and Membrane Reactors Operations in Chemical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039210220 9783039210237 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-023-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This Special Issue is aimed at highlighting the potentialities of membrane and membrane reactor operations in various sectors of chemical engineering, based on application of the process intensification strategy. In all of the contributions, the principles of process intensification were pursued during the adoption of membrane technology, demonstrating how it may lead to the development of redesigned processes that are more compact and efficient while also being more environmental friendly, energy saving, and amenable to integration with other green processes. This Special Issue comprises a number of experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the application of membrane and membrane reactor technology in various scientific fields of chemical engineering, such as membrane distillation for wastewater treatment, hydrogen production from reforming reactions via inorganic membrane and membrane photoassisted reactors, membrane desalination, gas/liquid phase membrane separation of CO2, and membrane filtration for the recovery of antioxidants from agricultural byproducts, contributing to valorization of the potentialities of membrane operations.

Novel Membrane Technologies for Traditional Industrial Processes

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ISBN: 9783038977902 9783038977919 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-791-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Through reading this book, you will obtain information on: (1) the main problems in air separation and natural gas treatment by membrane separation and how to solve them; (2) processes involving membranes and new membrane materials for the more economical utilization of bio-resources; (3) energy selection and membrane development for more expedient and stable harnessing of the natural osmosis phenomenon; (4) many excellent contributions about catalytic membrane bioreactors; (5) how to fine-tune the arrangement of aquaporins (i.e., proteins identified in biological cells) to achieve superior water treatment efficiency.

Pd-based Membranes. Overview and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038977025 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-703-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a great deal of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. The integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture that can be applied in smaller bioenergy or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as in large-scale power plants. Pd-based membranes are therefore regarded as a Key Enabling Technology (KET) to facilitate the transition towards a knowledge-based, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy. This Special Issue of the journal Membranes on “Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives” contains nine peer-reviewed articles. Topics include manufacturing techniques, understanding of material phenomena, module and reactor design, novel applications, and demonstration efforts and industrial exploitation.

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Failure Mechanisms in Alloys

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ISBN: 9783039282760 9783039282777 Year: Pages: 476 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-277-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The era of lean production and excellence in manufacturing, advancing with sustainable development, demands the rational utilization of raw materials and energy resources, adopting cleaner and environmentally-friendly industrial processes. In view of the new industrial revolution, through digital transformation, the exploitation of smart and sophisticated materials systems, the need of minimizing scrap and increasing efficiency, reliability and lifetime and, on the other hand, the pursuit of fuel economy and limitation of carbon footprint, are necessary conditions for the imminent growth in a highly competitive economy. Failure analysis is an interdisciplinary scientific topic, reflecting the opinions and interpretations coming from a systematic evidence-gathering procedure, embracing various important sectors, imparting knowledge, and substantiating improvement practices. The deep understanding of material/component role (e.g., rotating shaft, extrusion die, gas pipeline) and properties will be of central importance for fitness for purpose in certain industrial processes and applications. Finally, it is hoped and strongly believed that the accumulation of additional knowledge in the field of failure mechanisms and the adoption of the principles, philosophy, and deep understanding of failure analysis process approach will strongly promote the learning concept, as a continuously evolving process leading to personal and social progress and prosperity.

Keywords

impingement --- erosion corrosion --- API 5L-X65 --- flow loop --- wear scar --- creep fatigue --- crack growth --- grain boundary --- hydrogen-assisted cracking --- corrosion --- SOHIC --- cleavage fracture --- cold-working process --- surface-cracking process --- impact toughness --- strength --- low temperatures --- austenitic stainless steels --- pipeline steel --- tensile stress --- corrosion --- potentiodynamic polarization --- EIS --- brass extrusion --- CFD simulation --- extrusion failures --- plastic deformation processing --- finite element analysis --- inverse modeling --- post-necking hardening --- biaxial tensile test --- elevated temperature --- reliability design --- helix upper dispenser --- fracture --- parametric accelerated life testing --- faulty designs --- metal components --- fracture mechanisms --- fractography --- fracture mechanics --- quality improvement --- finite element modeling --- nanocrystalline materials --- elastic moduli --- yield strength --- cast duplex stainless steels --- thermal aging --- tensile deformation --- spinodal decomposition --- smooth particle hydrodynamics --- Titanium alloy machining --- numerical simulation --- cutting forces --- chip formation --- fracture --- iterative FEM Method --- GISSMO Model --- softening --- macroscopic strength criterion --- isotropic metals --- fracture plane --- linear Mohr–Coulomb criterion --- failure mechanism --- W-30Cu --- microstructure homogeneity --- dynamic compression strength --- ductility --- failure mechanism --- slow-rate machining --- chip formation --- shape --- temperature --- microhardness HV --- creep --- steam reforming --- carbides --- G-phase --- aging --- cast reformer tubes --- hot stamping --- press hardening --- austenitizing furnace --- high temperature fatigue --- thermal distortion --- conveying system --- refractory steels --- furnace component failure --- ductile irons --- tensile tests --- mechanical properties --- constitutive equations --- quality assessment --- shear angle --- chip root --- shape --- built-up edge --- slow-rate machining --- convection tubes --- AISI 304 stainless steel --- failure analysis --- sensitization --- bake hardening --- dent resistance --- failure study --- polynomial regression --- yield strength --- automotive steels --- reformer tubes --- HP-Mod --- failure analysis --- creep --- surface modification techniques --- degradation of protective layers --- lubrication --- nitrocarburizing --- hardfacings --- thermal-sprayed coatings --- finite element analysis --- forward slip prediction --- strip marking method --- multilinear regression --- micro flexible rolling --- thickness transition area --- 3D Voronoi modelling --- automotive --- 6063 Alloy --- EBSD --- bendability --- fractography --- modeling --- texture --- tribological properties --- wear --- surface treatment --- self-equalizing bearing --- n/a

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