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The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)

Authors: ---
Book Series: Routledge Global Institutions Series ISBN: 9780415631648 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.4324/9781315849324 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Computer Science --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-02 11:01:17
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This book traces the history and development of a mutual organization in the financial sector called SWIFT, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Over the last 40 years, SWIFT has served the financial services sector as proprietary communications platform, provider of products and services, standards developer, and conference organizer (Sibos). Founded to create efficiencies by replacing telegram and telex (or “wires”) for international payments, SWIFT now forms a core part of the financial services infrastructure. It is widely regarded as the most secure trusted third-party network in the world serving 212 countries and over 10,000 banking organizations, securities institutions, and corporate customers. Through every phase of its development, SWIFT has maintained the status of industry cooperative, thus presenting an opportunity to study broader themes of globalization and governance in the financial services sector. In this book the authors focus on how the design and current state of SWIFT were influenced by its historical origins, presenting a comprehensive account in a succinct form which provides an informative guide to the history, structure, activities, and future challenges of this key international organization. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars in a wide range of fields including IPE, comparative political economy, international economics, business studies, and business history.

Living Standards in Southeast Asia

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Book Series: Transforming Asia ISBN: 9789048550234 Year: Pages: 345 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Economics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-29 11:21:12
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Living Standards in Southeast Asia: Changes over the Long Twentieth Century, 1900-2015 examines changes in living standards across the ten countries of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, Brunei, Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) from the early years of the 20th century to the early 21st century. It covers both the last decades of the colonial period, the transition to independence and the decades from 1960 to the 2010s. The study uses a range of monetary and non-monetary indicators to assess how living standards have changed over time. It examines the outcomes in the context of debates about economic growth, inequality and poverty alleviation which began in the 1960s and 1970s, and continue to the present.

Format Matters: Standards, Practices, and Politics in Media Cultures

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783957961563 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.14619/1556 Language: English
Publisher: meson press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-26 10:44:05
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From TIFF files to TED talks, from book sizes to blues stations—the term “format” circulates in a staggering array of contexts and applies to entirely dissimilar objects and practices. How can such a pliable notion meaningfully function as an instrument of classification in so many industries and scientific communities? Comprising a wide range of case studies on the standards, practices, and politics of formats from scholars of photography, film, radio, television, and the Internet, Format Matters charts the many ways in which formats shape and are shaped by past and present media cultures. This volume represents the first sustained collaborative effort to advance the emerging field of format studies.

Sexuelle Identität und gesellschaftliche Norm

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht ISBN: 9783941875722 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.17875/gup2010-39 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Psychology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Die „sexuelle Identität“ des Menschen ist keineswegs nur biologisch, sondern in erheblichem Maße auch neurologisch, psychologisch sowie durch Umweltbedingungen determiniert und infolgedessen gradualisiert. Die Gesellschaft und ihr Recht ignorieren diese Variabilitäten jenseits der natürlichen Geschlechtlichkeit jedoch mit Blick auf Orientierungsbedürfnisse weitgehend: Familien- und personenstandsrechtliche Zuschreibungen müssen eindeutig sein, Veränderungen des biologischen Geschlechts kommen nur in seltenen Ausnahmefällen in Betracht, die gesellschaftlichen Vorstellungen über den Freiraum an „sexueller Selbstbestimmung“ werden an den Grenzen strafrechtlich abgesichert und jene, die sich nicht daran halten, gelten in der Rechtspraxis entweder als schuldfähig oder haben mit u.U. langjährigem Freiheitsentzug im Rahmen der Sicherungsverwahrung zu rechnen. Dieses Spannungsfeld zwischen individueller Disposition und gesellschaftlicher Erwartung war Gegenstand eines Workshops, der am 20. November 2009 gemeinsam vom Institut für Humangenetik der Universitätsmedizin Göttingen und dem Zentrum für Medizinrecht der Juristischen Fakultät veranstaltet wurde. Der vorliegende Band enthält die Resultate eines interdisziplinären Dialogs von Experten/Innen aus der Humangenetik, der Sexualforschung, der Soziologie, des Medizinrechts und der forensischen Psychiatrie.

The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195251 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-525-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance have most commonly been viewed in the context of human use and effects. However, both have co-existed in nature for millennia. Recently the roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have started to be discussed in terms of functions other than bacterial inhibition and protection. This special topic will focus on both the traditional role of antibiotics as warfare mechanisms and their alternative roles and uses within nature such as antibiotics as signals or communication mechanisms, antibiotic selection at low concentrations, the non-specific role of resistance mechanisms in nature: e.g. efflux pumps, evolution of antibiotic resistance and the role of persisters in natural antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

Microbiology --- mobile elements --- Plasmids --- Soil --- Water --- human --- environment --- Standards --- risk

Private food law: Governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

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Book Series: EIFL: European Institute of Food Law series ISBN: 9789086867301 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-730-1 Language: English
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. This book also addresses how private standards play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure. This book is of interest to all who concern themselves with food law legislation and litigation and the evolving role of private standards on changing the landscape of food chains and innovation.

Greening China

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780472117680 9780472901197 9780472901197 Year: DOI: 10.3998/mpub.2099075 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102030
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 08:17:53
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China has earned a reputation for lax environmental standards that allegedly attract corporations more interested in profit than in moral responsibility and, consequently, further negate incentives to raise environmental standards. Surprisingly, Ka Zeng and Joshua Eastin find that international economic integration with nation-states that have stringent environmental regulations facilitates the diffusion of corporate environmental norms and standards to Chinese provinces. At the same time, concerns about “green” tariffs imposed by importing countries encourage Chinese export-oriented firms to ratchet up their own environmental standards. The authors present systematic quantitative and qualitative analyses and data that not only demonstrate the ways in which external market pressure influences domestic environmental policy but also lend credence to arguments for the ameliorative effect of trade and foreign direct investment on the global environment.

Ethics Dumping: Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Research and Innovation Governance ISSN: 2452-0519 ISBN: 9783319647302 9783319647319 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64731-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: University of Central Lancashire
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:01:58
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This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the forementioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio-Based Economy: New Technologies, New Products, New Policies

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ISBN: 9783038973805 9783038973812 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-381-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Ecology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-29 10:05:43
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This book proposes an array of 11 key papers aimed at investigating the complex and multifaceted nature of the bio-based economy, focusing both on a conceptual understanding of the transition and on the measurement issues associated with it. More specifically, the papers included in this book can be broadly divided in two groups: (1) those aiming at adding to our understanding of the transition process towards a sustainable bio-based economy; and (2) those aiming at adding to the definition and measurement of the emerging sustainable bio-based economy. The book offers a comprehensive view of the phenomenon, providing a logical framework for understanding the ongoing transition towards a bio-based economy, as well as an overview of existing tools to assess and measure it. Policy-makers will largely benefit from the book, which contributes to taking a further step towards the much-needed transition to sustainability.

The Political Economy of Bank Regulation in Developing Countries

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ISBN: 9780198841999 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198841999.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Political Science --- Economics --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-24 23:57:51
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Why do governments in some developing countries implement international standards, while others do not? Focusing on the politics of bank regulation, this book develops a new framework to explain regulatory interdependence between countries in the core and the periphery of the global financial system. Drawing on in-depth analysis of eleven countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, it shows how financial globalization generates strong reputational and competitive incentives for developing countries to converge on international standards. Regulatory interdependence is generated by relations between regulators, politicians, and banks within developing countries, and international actors including investors, peer regulators, and international financial institutions. We explain why it is that some configurations of domestic politics and forms of integration into global finance generate convergence with international standards, while other configurations lead to divergence. This book contributes to our understanding of the ways in which governments and firms in the core of global finance powerfully shape regulatory politics in the periphery, and the ways in which peripheral governments and firms manoeuvre within the constraints and opportunities created by financial globalization

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