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24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric&#xD;departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit&#xD;suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in&#xD;the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical&#xD;analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination&#xD;and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight&#xD;leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient&#xD;during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.&#xD;The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization&#xD;is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using&#xD;mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists&#xD;and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional&#xD;stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it&#xD;requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its&#xD;simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality&#xD;in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of&#xD;professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.&#xD;However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why&#xD;leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."&#xD;

Directional Estimation for Robotic Beating Heart Surgery

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series on Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems Laboratory ISSN: 18673813 ISBN: 9783731503828 Year: Volume: 17 Pages: XIV, 241 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047040 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In robotic beating heart surgery, a remote-controlled robot can be used to carry out the operation while automatically canceling out the heart motion. The surgeon controlling the robot is shown a stabilized view of the heart. First, we consider the use of directional statistics for estimation of the phase of the heartbeat. Second, we deal with reconstruction of a moving and deformable surface. Third, we address the question of obtaining a stabilized image of the heart.

Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials

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ISBN: 9783038423539 9783038423522 Year: Pages: Pages: VIII, 144 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-17 11:05:41
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Particle-stabilized emulsions, today often referred to as Pickering/Ramsden emulsions, are vital in many fields, including personal care products, foods, pharmaceuticals, and oil recovery. The exploitation of these Pickering emulsions for the manufacture of new functional materials has also recently become the subject of intense investigation. While much progress has been made over the past decade, Pickering emulsion still remains a rich topic since many aspects of their behavior have yet to be investigated. The present “Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials” Special Issue aims to bring together research and review papers pertaining to the recent developments in the design, fabrication, and application of Pickering emulsions. The themes include, but are not limited to:1. Interactions of colloidal particles confined at fluid interfaces2. Pickering emulsion-based polymerization3. Interfacial assembly and emulsion stabilization4. Rheology of particle laden interfaces and Pickering emulsions5. Functional materials templated from Pickering emulsions

Asymmetric and Selective Biocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038978466 9783038978473 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-847-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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This Issue contains one communication, six articles, and two reviews. The communication from Paola Vitale et al. represents a work where whole cells were used as biocatalysts for the reduction of optically active chloroalkyl arylketones followed by a chemical cyclization to give the desired heterocycles. Among the various whole cells screened (baker’s yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 7336, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016), baker’s yeast provided the best yields and the highest enantiomeric ratios (95:5) in the bioreduction of the above ketones. In this respect, valuable chiral non-racemic functionalized oxygen-containing heterocycles (e.g., (S)-styrene oxide, (S)-2-phenyloxetane, (S)-2-phenyltetrahydrofuran), amenable to be further elaborated on, can be smoothly and successfully generated from their prochiral precursors. Studies about pure biocatalysts with mechanistical studies, application in different reactions, and new immobilization methods for improving their stability were reported in five different articles. The article by Su-Yan Wang et al. describes the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from Pedobacter heparinus (PhGn2E). For this, several N-acylated glucosamine derivatives were chemically synthesized and used to test the substrate specificity of the enzyme. The mechanism of the enzyme was studied by hydrogen/deuterium NMR. The study at the anomeric hydroxyl group and C-2 position of the substrate in the reaction mixture confirmed the epimerization reaction via ring-opening/enolate formation. Site-directed mutagenesis was also used to confirm the proposed mechanism of this interesting enzyme. The article by Forest H. Andrews et al. studies two enzymes, benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyze the non-oxidative decarboxylation of 2-keto acids with different specificity. BFDC from Pseudomonas putida exhibited very limited activity with pyruvate, whereas the PDCs from S. cerevisiae or from Zymomonas mobilis showed virtually no activity with benzoylformate (phenylglyoxylate). After studies using saturation mutagenesis, the BFDC T377L/A460Y variant was obtained, with 10,000-fold increase in pyruvate/benzoylformate. The change was attributed to an improvement in the Km value for pyruvate and a decrease in the kcat value for benzoylformate. The characterization of the new catalyst was performed, providing context for the observed changes in the specificity. The article by Xin Wang et al. compares two types of biocatalysts to produce D-lysine L-lysine in a cascade process catalyzed by two enzymes: racemase from microorganisms that racemize L-lysine to give D,L-lysine and decarboxylase that can be in cells, permeabilized cells, and the isolated enzyme. The comparison between the different forms demonstrated that the isolated enzyme showed the higher decarboxylase activity. Under optimal conditions, 750.7 mmol/L D-lysine was finally obtained from 1710 mmol/L L-lysine after 1 h of racemization reaction and 0.5 h of decarboxylation reaction. D-lysine yield could reach 48.8% with enantiomeric excess (ee) of 99%. In the article by Rivero and Palomo, lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) was highly stabilized at alkaline pH in the presence of PEG, which permitted its immobilization for the first time by multipoint covalent attachment on different aldehyde-activated matrices. Different covalent immobilized preparation of the enzyme was successfully obtained. The thermal and solvent stability was highly increased by this treatment, and the novel catalysts showed high regioselectivity in the deprotection of per-O-acetylated nucleosides. The article by Robson Carlos Alnoch et al. describes the protocol and use of a new generation of tailor-made bifunctional supports activated with alkyl groups that allow the immobilization of proteins through the most hydrophobic region of the protein surface and aldehyde groups that allows the covalent immobilization of the previously adsorbed proteins. These supports were especially used in the case of lipase immobilization. The immobilization of a new metagenomic lipase (LipC12) yielded a biocatalyst 3.5-fold more active and 5000-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme. The PEGylated immobilized lipase showed high regioselectivity, producing high yields of the C-3 monodeacetylated product at pH 5.0 and 4 °C. Hybrid catalysts composed of an enzyme and metallic complex are also treated in this Special Issue. The article by Christian Herrero et al. describes the development of the Mn(TpCPP)-Xln10A artificial metalloenzyme, obtained by non-covalent insertion of Mn(III)-meso-tetrakis(p-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin [Mn(TpCPP), 1-Mn] into xylanase 10A from Streptomyces lividans (Xln10A). The complex was found able to catalyze the selective photo-induced oxidation of organic substrates in the presence of [RuII(bpy)3]2+ as a photosensitizer and [CoIII(NH3)5Cl]2+ as a sacrificial electron acceptor, using water as oxygen atom source. The two published reviews describe different subjects with interest in the fields of biocatalysis and mix metallic-biocatalysis, respectively. The review by Anika Scholtissek et al. describes the state-of-the-art regarding ene-reductases from the old yellow enzyme family (OYEs) to catalyze the asymmetric hydrogenation of activated alkenes to produce chiral products with industrial interest. The dependence of OYEs on pyridine nucleotide coenzyme can be avoided by using nicotinamide coenzyme mimetics. In the review, three main classes of OYEs are described and characterized. The review by Yajie Wang and Huimin Zhao highlights some of the recent examples in the past three years that combine transition metal catalysis with enzymatic catalysis. With recent advances in protein engineering, catalyst synthesis, artificial metalloenzymes, and supramolecular assembly, there is great potential to develop more sophisticated tandem chemoenzymatic processes for the synthesis of structurally complex chemicals. In conclusion, these nine publications give an overview of the possibilities of different catalysts, both traditional biocatalysts and hybrids with metals or organometallic complexes to be used in different processes—particularly in synthetic reactions—under very mild reaction conditions.

Geomechanics for Energy and a Sustainable Environment

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ISBN: 9783039281503 / 9783039281510 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-151-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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This book describes recent advances in geomechanics for energy and the sustainable environment. Four research articles, related to high-level radioactive nuclear waste disposal stability, geological effect and wellbore stability considerations for methane gas hydrate production, and artificial soil freezing, are presented in this book. In addition, a comprehensive state-of-the-art review verifies the strong correlation between global climate change and the occurrence of geotechnical engineering hazards. The review also summarizes recent attempts to reduce CO2 emissions from civil and geotechnical engineering practices. Readers will gain ideas as to how we can deal with conventional and renewable energy sources and environment-related geotechnical engineering issues.

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

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ISBN: 9783038978961 / 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

Machine Learning, Low-Rank Approximations and Reduced Order Modeling in Computational Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039214099 / 9783039214105 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-410-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The use of machine learning in mechanics is booming. Algorithms inspired by developments in the field of artificial intelligence today cover increasingly varied fields of application. This book illustrates recent results on coupling machine learning with computational mechanics, particularly for the construction of surrogate models or reduced order models. The articles contained in this compilation were presented at the EUROMECH Colloquium 597, « Reduced Order Modeling in Mechanics of Materials », held in Bad Herrenalb, Germany, from August 28th to August 31th 2018. In this book, Artificial Neural Networks are coupled to physics-based models. The tensor format of simulation data is exploited in surrogate models or for data pruning. Various reduced order models are proposed via machine learning strategies applied to simulation data. Since reduced order models have specific approximation errors, error estimators are also proposed in this book. The proposed numerical examples are very close to engineering problems. The reader would find this book to be a useful reference in identifying progress in machine learning and reduced order modeling for computational mechanics.

Keywords

parameter-dependent model --- surrogate modeling --- tensor-train decomposition --- gappy POD --- heterogeneous data --- elasto-viscoplasticity --- archive --- model reduction --- 3D reconstruction --- inverse problem plasticity --- data science --- model order reduction --- POD --- DEIM --- gappy POD --- GNAT --- ECSW --- empirical cubature --- hyper-reduction --- reduced integration domain --- computational homogenisation --- model order reduction (MOR) --- low-rank approximation --- proper generalised decomposition (PGD) --- PGD compression --- randomised SVD --- nonlinear material behaviour --- machine learning --- artificial neural networks --- computational homogenization --- nonlinear reduced order model --- elastoviscoplastic behavior --- nonlinear structural mechanics --- proper orthogonal decomposition --- empirical cubature method --- error indicator --- symplectic model order reduction --- proper symplectic decomposition (PSD) --- structure preservation of symplecticity --- Hamiltonian system --- reduced order modeling (ROM) --- proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) --- enhanced POD --- a priori enrichment --- modal analysis --- stabilization --- dynamic extrapolation --- computational homogenization --- large strain --- finite deformation --- geometric nonlinearity --- reduced basis --- reduced-order model --- sampling --- Hencky strain --- microstructure property linkage --- unsupervised machine learning --- supervised machine learning --- neural network --- snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition

Catalysts Deactivation, Poisoning and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039215461 / 9783039215478 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-547-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Catalyst lifetime represents one of the most crucial economic aspects in industrial catalytic processes, due to costly shutdowns, catalyst replacements, and proper disposal of spent materials. Not surprisingly, there is considerable motivation to understand and treat catalyst deactivation, poisoning, and regeneration, which causes this research topic to continue to grow. The complexity of catalyst poisoning obviously increases along with the increasing use of biomass/waste-derived/residual feedstocks and with requirements for cleaner and novel sustainable processes. This book collects 15 research papers providing insights into several scientific and technical aspects of catalyst poisoning and deactivation, proposing more tolerant catalyst formulations, and exploring possible regeneration strategies.

Keywords

hydrogenation --- copper --- catalyst --- water --- deactivation --- octanal --- octanol --- V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts --- poisoning --- sulfur-containing sodium salts --- SO3 --- NO removal --- Cu/SSZ-13 --- NH3-SCR --- sodium ions --- deactivation mechanism --- sulfur poisoning --- coke deposition --- in situ regeneration --- Co-Zn/H-Beta --- NOx reduction by C3H8 --- catalyst deactivation --- diesel --- natural gas --- SEM --- TEM --- poisoning --- oxygen storage capacity --- thermal stability --- cyclic operation --- deactivation --- oxysulfate --- oxysulfide --- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) --- SO2 poisoning --- Low-temperature catalyst --- nitrogen oxides --- nitrous oxide --- dry reforming of methane --- nickel catalysts --- barium carbonate --- deactivation by coking --- catalytic methane combustion --- exhaust gas --- catalyst durability --- Liquefied natural gas --- biogas --- vehicle emission control --- sulfur deactivation --- catalyst deactivation --- aluminum sulfate --- palladium sulfate --- regeneration --- phthalic anhydride --- vanadia-titania catalyst --- unusual deactivation --- physico-chemical characterization --- over-reduction --- vanadia species --- coke deposition --- DeNOx --- MW incinerator --- deactivation --- ammonium sulfates --- regeneration --- washing --- CO2 reforming --- Ni-catalyst --- syngas --- tetragonal zirconia --- phase stabilization --- CPO reactor --- effect of flow rate --- deactivation --- iso-octane --- Rh catalysts --- Rh --- homogeneous catalysis --- catalyst deactivation --- n/a

Entropy in Dynamic Systems

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ISBN: 9783039216161 / 9783039216178 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-617-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In order to measure and quantify the complex behavior of real-world systems, either novel mathematical approaches or modifications of classical ones are required to precisely predict, monitor, and control complicated chaotic and stochastic processes. Though the term of entropy comes from Greek and emphasizes its analogy to energy, today, it has wandered to different branches of pure and applied sciences and is understood in a rather rough way, with emphasis placed on the transition from regular to chaotic states, stochastic and deterministic disorder, and uniform and non-uniform distribution or decay of diversity. This collection of papers addresses the notion of entropy in a very broad sense. The presented manuscripts follow from different branches of mathematical/physical sciences, natural/social sciences, and engineering-oriented sciences with emphasis placed on the complexity of dynamical systems. Topics like timing chaos and spatiotemporal chaos, bifurcation, synchronization and anti-synchronization, stability, lumped mass and continuous mechanical systems modeling, novel nonlinear phenomena, and resonances are discussed.

New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

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ISBN: 9783039211401 / 9783039211418 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-141-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book is the result of a Special Issue published in Applied Sciences, entitled “New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete"". It identifies emerging research areas within the field of recycled aggregate concrete and contributes to the increased use of this eco-efficient material.Its contents are organised in the following sections: Upscaling the use of recycled aggregate concrete in structural design; Large scale applications of recycled aggregate concrete; Long-term behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete; Performance of recycled aggregate concrete in very aggressive environments; Reliability of recycled aggregate concrete structures; Life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete; New applications of recycled aggregate concrete.

Keywords

reactive power concrete --- shrinkage --- creep --- steel fibre --- model --- compressive strength --- models --- geological nature of aggregates --- quality of aggregates --- concrete --- recycled aggregates --- seismic load --- strain rate --- fiber-reinforced concrete --- dynamic mechanical property --- recycled aggregate quality --- bond strength --- shear behavior --- aggregate interlock mechanism --- size effect --- ready-mixed concrete --- recycled concrete aggregates --- returned concrete --- concrete sludge fines --- soil stabilization --- recycled aggregate --- recycled aggregate concrete --- artificial neural networks --- aggregate characteristic --- input variable --- recycled concrete --- aggregate --- mixture proportioning --- flexural behavior --- recycling --- heavyweight waste glass --- cyclic load --- reinforced concrete member --- recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) --- steel reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (SRRAC) --- elevated temperature --- residual properties --- recycled coarse aggregate concrete --- nylon fiber --- mechanical properties --- permeability --- microstructure --- foam concrete --- cellular concrete --- ceramic foam --- modulus --- crushing --- energy absorbing --- CT --- foam structure --- foam stability --- recycled aggregate --- concrete --- life cycle assessment --- environmental impact --- recycled concrete aggregate --- crumb rubber --- crushed glass --- compressive strength --- tensile splitting strength --- water absorption --- concrete --- aggregates --- fly-ash --- silica fume --- blast-furnace slag --- mechanical properties --- water absorption --- reinforced concrete --- recycled aggregate concrete --- columns --- seismic performance --- numerical analysis --- variable sensitivity --- recycled aggregate --- concrete --- construction waste --- mechanical characteristics --- durable characteristics --- n/a

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