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The Meaning of Space in Sign Language. Reference, Specificity and Structure in Catalan Sign Language Discourse

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Book Series: Sign Languages and Deaf Communities [SLDC] ISSN: 2192516X ISBN: 9781614518815 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 290 DOI: 10.1515/9781614518815 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-06 16:06:17
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Bringing together sign language linguistics and the semantics-pragmatics interface, this book focuses on the use of signing space in Catalan Sign Language (LSC). On the basis of small-scale corpus data, it provides an exhaustive description of referential devices dependent on space. The book provides insight into the study of meaning in the visual-spatial modality and into our understanding of the discourse behavior of spatial locations.

Evolutionary Theory: Fringe or Central to Psychological Science

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199204 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-920-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The computational theory of mind, which views the brain as an information processor that operates on cognitive representations, is central to modern cognitive psychology and is the dominant perspective from which brain function is conceptualized and studied. Evolutionary Psychology (EP) is the application of evolutionary theory to understanding human behaviour and cognition. Unlike other core Psychology topic areas (such as Personality, Learning or Developmental Psychology), however, EP is not defined by the subset of psychological phenomena it seeks to describe and understand. It is instead defined by a specific meta-theoretical perspective, from which it seeks to (potentially) explain all psychological phenomena. The central question posed by this volume is whether this over-arching nature provides an opportunity for evolutionary approaches to offer an alternative meta-theoretical perspective to the information processing / representational view of brain function and behavior.

Mathematical and Statistics Anxiety: Educational, Social, Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450763 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-076-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Mathematical anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension or fear which arises when a person is faced with mathematical content. The negative consequences of mathematical anxiety are well-documented. Students with high levels of mathematical anxiety might underperform in important test situations, they tend to hold negative attitudes towards mathematics, and they are likely to opt out of elective mathematics courses, which also affects their career opportunities. Although at the university level many students do not continue to study mathematics, social science students are confronted with the fact that their disciplines involve learning about statistics - another potential source of anxiety for students who are uncomfortable with dealing with numerical content. Research on mathematical anxiety is a truly interdisciplinary field with contributions from educational, developmental, cognitive, social and neuroscience researchers. The current collection of papers demonstrates the diversity of the field, offering both new empirical contributions and reviews of existing studies. The contributors also outline future directions for this line of research.

The Origin and Evolution of the Genetic Code: 100th Anniversary Year of the Birth of Francis Crick

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ISBN: 9783038427698 9783038427704 Year: Pages: X, 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-770-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:38:32
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The genetic code is one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century as it is central to life itself. It is the algorithm that connects 64 RNA triplets to 20 amino acids, thus functioning as the Rosetta Stone of molecular biology. Following the discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, George Gamow organized the 20-member “RNA Tie Club” to discuss the transmission of information by DNA. Crick, Sydney Brenner, Leslie Barnett, and Richard Watts-Tobin first demonstrated the three bases of DNA code for one amino acid. The decoding of the genetic code was begun by Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and was completed by Har Gobind Khorana. Then, finally, Brenner, Barnett, Eugene Katz, and Crick placed the last piece of the jigsaw puzzle of life by proving that UGA was a third stop codon. In the mid-1960s, Carl Woese proposed the “stereochemical hypothesis”, which speculated that the genetic code derives from a type of codon–amino acid-pairing interaction. The origin and evolution of the genetic code remains a mystery despite numerous theories and attempts to understand these. In this Special Issue, experts in the field present their thoughts and views on this topic. Because 2016 commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Francis Crick, the Guest Editor of this Special Issue also dedicates all articles included herein to the memory of Francis Crick.

Aquaporins: Dynamic Role and Regulation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452897 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-289-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Aquaporins (AQPs), a class of integral membrane proteins, form channels facilitating movement of water and many other solutes. In solute transport systems of all living organisms including plants, animals and fungi, AQPs play a vital role. Plants contain a much higher number of AQP genes compared to animals, the likely consequence of genome duplication events and higher ploidy levels. As a result of duplication and subsequent diversification, plant AQPs have evolved several subfamilies with very diverse functions. Plant AQPs are highly selective for specific solutes because of their unique structural features. For instance, ar/R selectivity filters and NPA domains have been found to be key elements in governing solute permeability through the AQP channels. Combination of conserved motifs and specific amino acids influencing pore morphology appears to regulate the permeability of specific solutes such as water, urea, CO2, H2O2, boric acid, silicic acid and many more. The discovery of novel AQPs has been accelerated over the last few years with the increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic data. The expanding number of well characterised AQPs provides opportunities to understand factors influencing water transport, nutritional uptake, and elemental balance. Homology-based search tools and phylogenetic analyses offer efficient strategies for AQP identification. Subsequent characterization can be based on different approaches involving proteomics, genomics, and transcriptomic tools. The combination of these technological advances make it possible to efficiently study the inter-dependency of AQPs, regulation through phosphorylation and reversible phosphorylation, networking with other transporters, structural features, pH gating systems, trafficking and degradation. Several studies have supported the role of AQPs in differential phenotypic responses to abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Crop improvement programs aiming for the development of cultivars with higher tolerance against stresses like drought, flooding, salinity and many biotic diseases, can explore and exploit the finely tuned AQP-regulated transport system. For instance, a promising approach in crop breeding programs is the utilization of genetic variation in AQPs for the development of stress tolerant cultivars. Similarly, transgenic and mutagenesis approaches provide an opportunity to better understand the AQP transport system with subsequent applications for the development of climate-smart drought-tolerant cultivars. The contributions to this Frontiers in Plant Science Research Topic have highlighted the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of AQPs in several plant species. Numerous aspects of regulation that seek to explain AQP-mediated transport system have been addressed. These contributions will help to improve our understanding of AQPs and their role in important physiological aspects and will bring AQP research closer to practical applications.

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216888 / 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Japanese Media Cultures in Japan and Abroad: Transnational Consumption of Manga, Anime, and Media-Mixes

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ISBN: 9783039210084 / 9783039210091 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-009-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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In the last few decades, Japanese popular culture productions have been consolidated as one of the most influential and profitable global industries. As a creative industry, Japanese Media-Mixes generate multimillion-dollar revenues, being a product of international synergies and the natural appeal of the characters and stories. The transnationalization of investment capital, diversification of themes and (sub)genres, underlying threat in the proliferation of illegal audiences, development of internet streaming technologies, and other new transformations in media-mix-based production models make the study of these products even more relevant today. In this way, manga (Japanese comics), anime (Japanese animation), and video games are not necessarily products designed for the national market. More than ever, it is necessary to reconcile national and transnational positions for the study of this cultural production.The present volume includes contributions aligned to the analysis of Japanese popular culture flow from many perspectives (cultural studies, film, comic studies, sociology, etc.), although we have emphasized the relationships between manga, anime, and international audiences. The selected works include the following topics:• Studies on audiences—national and transnational case studies;• Fandom production and Otaku culture;• Cross-media and transmedia perspectives;• Theoretical perspectives on manga, anime, and media-mixes.

Mass Spectrometric Proteomics

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ISBN: 9783038978268 9783038978275 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-827-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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As suggested by the title of this Special Issue, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry plays a pivotal role in the field of proteomics. Indeed, the research and review articles&nbsp; published in the Issue clearly evidence how the data produced by this sophisticated methodology may promote impressive advancements in this area. From among the topics discussed in the Issue, a few point to the development of&nbsp; new procedures for the&nbsp; optimization of the experimental conditions that should be applied&nbsp; for the identification of proteins present in complex mixtures.&nbsp; Other applications&nbsp; described in these articles show&nbsp; the huge potential of&nbsp; these strategies in the protein profiling of organs and&nbsp; range from&nbsp; to the study of post-translational tissue modifications to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms behind human disorders and the identification of potential biomarkers of these diseases.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

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