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The evolution of grounded spatial language

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Book Series: Computational Models of Language Evolution ISBN: 9783946234142 9783946234159 9783944675466 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_611695 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Computer Science --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-13 11:01:21
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This book presents groundbreaking robotic experiments on how and why spatial language evolves. It provides detailed explanations of the origins of spatial conceptualization strategies, spatial categories, landmark systems and spatial grammar by tracing the interplay of environmental conditions, communicative and cognitive pressures. The experiments discussed in this book go far beyond previous approaches in grounded language evolution. For the first time, agents can evolve not only particular lexical systems but also evolve complex conceptualization strategies underlying the emergence of category systems and compositional semantics. Moreover, many issues in cognitive science, ranging from perception and conceptualization to language processing, had to be dealt with to instantiate these experiments, so that this book contributes not only to the study of language evolution but to the investigation of the cognitive bases of spatial language as well.

Spatial and non-spatial aspects of neglect

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195848 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-584-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Neglect is one of the most impressive neuropsychological disorder, for both its theoretical and clinical relevance. Besides being very common and disabling, it is highly informative for understanding normal cognitive functioning. The hallmark of neglect is the failure to attend to the contralesional hemispace. However, several studies have recently highlighted that additional deficits, not attributable to a spatial bias, are associated to the impaired contralesional hemispace processing. Moreover, manifestations of neglect tend to be particularly heterogeneous and often dissociate according to the spatial domain being investigated (e.g., body space, space within reaching, space beyond reaching, imaginal space). Heterogeneity in neglect patients also means that dissociations across different tasks in a single patient are more the rule than the exception. Evidence suggests that some of these dissociations can be readily explained by taking into account the amount of available attentional resources as a major determinant for the presence and the severity of neglect. There is no doubt that neglect patients provide a wealth of information about the functioning of systems subserving attentional orienting and spatial processing. Moreover, their performance also show that some non-spatial deficits are tightly coupled with more classic contralesional spatial deficits. It seems however still unclear to what extent these non-spatial deficits are an intrinsic characteristic of neglect or whether they are to be considered unspecific effects of the often massive brain lesions suffered by the patients. From the clinical point of view, neglect is a disorder that dramatically affects patients and their caregivers, because it severely limits the individuals’ autonomy and motor recovery after brain damage. For these reasons neglect is a disorder that is worth rehabilitating. To be effective, neglect rehabilitation should be based on the knowledge of what cognitive aspects are impaired and it should be focused on improving daily-life performance. For these reasons, it is also important to detect and quantify subtle forms of neglect.

Deep Mapping

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ISBN: 9783038421658 9783038421665 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-166-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-03 11:19:27
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Mobilität und Wissenstransfer in diachroner und interdisziplinärer Perspektive

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Book Series: Topoi – Berlin Studies of the Ancient World/Topoi – Berliner Studien der Alten Welt ISSN: 2191-5806 ISBN: 9783110258912 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: viii, 256 DOI: 10.1515/9783110258912 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-13 09:50:00
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What effect do spatial mobility and migrations have on the diffusion of knowledge? In this volume, papers dealing with the topic have been collected from various culture-historical and theoretical disciplines. Chronologically they range from non-literate cultures to an insight into contemporary research on economic innovation. The interdisciplinary contributions reveal in different ways the relationships between spatial mobility and the transfer of knowledge, thus allowing the phenomenon to be structured in both historical and non-literate ages

Wirtschaft und Wirtschaftspolitik in Deutschland. 75 Jahre RWI – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung e.V. 1943–2018

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Book Series: Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Beihefte ISBN: 9783110570557 Year: Volume: 22 Pages: 486 DOI: 10.1515/9783110570557 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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This title documents the history of the Rhenish-Westphalian Institute for Economic Research (RWI), re-founded in 1943 as the “Western Division” of the German Institute for Economic Research. Starting from the initial founding in 1926, it includes the post-war re-founding and reorientation of the Institute, its redirection in the new millennium through 2018, and describes the changing economic, political, and scientific contexts of the times.

Space in Hellenistic Philosophy: Critical Studies in Ancient Physics

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ISBN: 9783110365856 9783110554762 9783110386264 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.1515/9783110365856 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:05

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The volume discusses the notion of space by focusing on the most representative exponents of the Hellenistic schools and explores the role played by spatial concepts in both coeval and later authors who, without specifically thematising these concepts, made use of them in a theoretically original way. Renowned scholars investigate the philosophical significance and bring to light the problematical character of the ancient conceptions of space.

Theorizing transformative innovations: the role of agency in real critical junctures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781789902570 9781789902587 Year: Pages: 23 DOI: 10.4337/9781789902587 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-29 10:32:33
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Increased emphasis on the links between regional diversity and regional knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurship highlights the need for a focus on the spatial aspects of these multifaceted, dynamic relationships in order to improve our understanding. By means of a conceptual approach, this timely book illustrates the links between innovation and economic development through the role of space. This thought-provoking book addresses the questions regarding diversity, innovation and clusters that require further investigation and analysis.

Perspective Taking: Building a neurocognitive framework for integrating the "social" and the "spatial"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194179 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-417-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Background: Interacting with other people involves spatial awareness of one’s own body and the other’s body and viewpoint. In the past, social cognition has focused largely on belief reasoning, which is abstracted away from spatial and bodily representations, while there is a strong tradition of work on spatial and object representation which does not consider social interactions. These two domains have flourished independently. A small but growing body of research examines how awareness of space and body relates to the ability to interpret and interact with others. This also builds on the growing awareness that many cognitive processes are embodied, which could be of relevance for the integration of the social and spatial domains: Online mental transformations of spatial representations have been shown to rely on simulated body movements and various aspects of social interaction have been related to the simulation of a conspecific’s behaviour within the observer’s bodily repertoire. Both dimensions of embodied transformations or mappings seem to serve the purpose of establishing alignment between the observer and a target. In spatial cognition research the target is spatially defined as a particular viewpoint or frame of reference (FOR), yet, in social interaction research another viewpoint is occupied by another’s mind, which crucially requires perspective taking in the sense of considering what another person experiences from a different viewpoint. Perspective taking has been studied in different ways within developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channelling all information into a unified account of perspective taking and viewpoint transformations have not been presented so far. Aims: This Research Topic aims to bring together the social and the spatial, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across areas. In particular, the topic aims to advance our current theories and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines. Scope: The focus of this Research Topic is on the SPATIAL and the SOCIAL, and we anticipate that all submissions will touch on both aspects and will explicitly attempt to bridge conceptual gaps. Social questions could include questions of how people judge another person’s viewpoint or spatial capacities, or how they imagine themselves from different points of view. Spatial questions could include consideration of different physical configurations of the body and the arrangement of different viewpoints, including mental rotation of objects or viewpoints that have social relevance. Questions could also relate to how individual differences (in personality, sex, development, culture, species etc.) influence or determine social and spatial perspective judgements. Many different methods can be used to explore perspective taking, including mental chronometry, behavioural tasks, EEG/MEG and fMRI, child development, neuropsychological patients, virtual reality and more. Bringing together results and approaches from these different domains is a key aim of this Research Topic. We welcome submissions of experimental papers, reviews and theory papers which cover these topics.

Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193868 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-386-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The global population aged over 60 is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. In many countries, the older population now faces the prospect of spending a quarter of their lives aged over 65, and a significant proportion will have to cope with cognitive decline associated with normal ageing or with dementia disorders. Given that these fundamental demographic changes will pose a significant challenge to health care systems, a detailed understanding of age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes is essential in helping elderly populations maintain cognitive performance. In addition, developing sensitive biomarkers to identify those at risk of developing dementia is crucial for early and effective interventions. To make inferences about the ageing process from the animal model back to the human, rigorous behavioral paradigms must be used to ensure that the same function is being examined across species. Given that similar navigational paradigms can easily be applied to humans and animals, recent years have seen an expansion of studies attempting to bridge the gap between age-related changes in animal and human spatial cognition. These studies begin to suggest that disruptions in spatial computations are among the earliest indicators of impending cognitive decline. In addition, although many animal studies have identified pathological mechanisms with paradigms involving spatial navigation, these mechanisms support many nonspatial cognitive functions as well. As a consequence, a successful characterization of how spatial processing changes in the ageing brain could reveal fundamental effects of cognitive ageing that could inform about general mechanisms underlying decline in perception, mnemonic processing and multisensory integration.

Quantitative analysis of neuroanatomy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197965 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-796-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The true revolution in the age of digital neuroanatomy is the ability to extensively quantify anatomical structures and thus investigate structure-function relationships in great detail. Large-scale projects were recently launched with the aim of providing infrastructure for brain simulations. These projects will increase the need for a precise understanding of brain structure, e.g., through statistical analysis and models. From articles in this Research Topic, we identify three main themes that clearly illustrate how new quantitative approaches are helping advance our understanding of neural structure and function. First, new approaches to reconstruct neurons and circuits from empirical data are aiding neuroanatomical mapping. Second, methods are introduced to improve understanding of the underlying principles of organization. Third, by combining existing knowledge from lower levels of organization, models can be used to make testable predictions about a higher-level organization where knowledge is absent or poor. This latter approach is useful for examining statistical properties of specific network connectivity when current experimental methods have not yet been able to fully reconstruct whole circuits of more than a few hundred neurons.

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