Search results: Found 50

Listing 1 - 10 of 50 << page
of 5
>>
Sort by
Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J‑PARC)

Author:
ISBN: 9783038974833 9783038974840 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-484-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:44:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is a landmark large user-facility producing neutron and muon beams. Those beams feed over 20 beamlines hosting world-class instruments for the investigation of matter across the disciplines of materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, biological and life sciences, geology, engineering, and their wider applications. Neutron and muons can probe matter in very peculiar ways. They are sensitive to magnetism and hydrogen atoms, can penetrate materials deeply or probe surfaces, and allow one to investigate the fundamental dynamics of the materials. In the past three to four decades, neutron scattering has largely contributed to the development of modern technology, such as computers, mobile phone technology, electo-chemistry, the transportation industry, and the pharmaceutic industry. MLF is a world leader in such characterization technology and serves yearly to about 700 research experiments conducted from users of 34 countries around the world. The present book describes technical details of the proton accelerator, the neutron spallation source, the muon facility, and all the beamlines with engineering realization, specifications, and relevant examples.

The structure, form and language of international environmental norms – from absolute to relative normativity (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9781784714642 9781784714659 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: 10.4337/9781784714659 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 15:10:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

International environmental law has a dual nature being both formal (attached to explicit state will) and instrumental (detached from explicit state will). In this chapter it is argued that normativity of international environmental legal norms is relativised due to the softening of hard law and hardening of soft law. The softening of hard law is caused primarily by the interpretative nature of language and the interplay between formalism and instrumentalism as interpretative paradigms. As a consequence, the normative content of hard law is always a matter of interpretation which by default causes hard law to be more or less indeterminate. The hardening of soft law is visible inter alia in the informal legal status that several soft law instruments such as UN resolutions, accords, executive board decisions and informal initiatives may enjoy through their legitimacy and effectiveness. This results in some soft law instruments gaining relative legal effect even when lacking formal legal status. Based on these observations it is concluded that the normativity or validity of legal norms in international environmental law can only be evaluated after a careful analysis of all the traces of normativity (form, legitimacy and effectiveness) at play.

Computer Aided Policy Making

Author:
ISBN: 9780203979259 9781138381551 9780419244806 9781135920319 9781135920302 9781135920265 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203979259 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:28
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book will prove a unique source of information and instruction for anyone seeking to make better human-oriented policy, whether urban planner, business strategist, or manager in the field of education, health or welfare, Ingeniously Wyatt has created two books in one: the main text covers the types of software package available: mainstream software, peripheral software, innovative software, frontier software; the lessons generated from the software are outlined in lesson boxes. Readers can use the text alone to familiarize themselves with the computer packages or read the boxes only, or they can do both.

Keywords

policymaking --- practice --- problems --- goals --- hierarchy --- expert --- choice --- exercise --- process --- soft

Liquid Life

Author:
ISBN: 9781950192175 9781950192182 Year: Pages: 600 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0246.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Biology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-17 11:21:04
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

If we lived in a liquid world, the concept of a "machine" would make no sense. Liquid life is metaphor and apparatus that discusses the consequences of thinking, working, and living through liquids. It is an irreducible, paradoxical, parallel, planetary-scale material condition, unevenly distributed spatially, but temporally continuous. It is what remains when logical explanations can no longer account for the experiences that we recognize as part of "being alive."Liquid Life references a third-millennial understanding of matter that seeks to restore the agency of the liquid soul for an ecological era, which has been banished by reductionist, "brute" materialist discourses and mechanical models of life. Offering an alternative worldview of the living realm through a "new materialist" and "liquid" study of matter, Armstrong conjures forth examples of creatures that do not obey mechanistic concepts like predictability, efficiency, and rationality. With the advent of molecular science, an increasingly persuasive ontology of liquid technologies can be identified. Through the lens of lifelike dynamic droplets, the agency for these systems exists at the interfaces between different fields of matter/energy that respond to highly local effects, with no need for a central organizing system.Liquid Life seeks an alternative partnership between humanity and the natural world. It provokes a re-invention of the languages of the living realm to open up alternative spaces for exploration, including contributor Rolf Hughes’ "angelology" of language, which explores the transformative invocations of prose poetry, and Simone Ferracina’s graphical notations that help shape our concepts of metabolism, upcycling, and designing with fluids. A conceptual and practical toolset for thinking and designing, liquid life reunites us with the irreducible "soul substance" of living things, which will neither be simply "solved," nor go away.

Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199877 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-987-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The develoment of plastic surgery techniques allows for preserving and reconstruction of function after resection of malignant tumors. From split thickness skin grafts to pedicled and free tissue transfer multiple techniques are at hand to restore body integrity. Sufficient soft tissue coverage allows for adjuvant radiation therapy or can cure its sequelae. Nerve, tendon and muscle transfers are used to regain motor function of the extremities. Even large bony defects can be treated by microsurgically transferring fibula, pelvic and femoral bone. In case main vessels need to be resected reconstruction is possible with autologous and artificial grafts. By means of plastic surgery thoracic and abdominal defects can be covered so that foremost unresectable tumors become curable. Unfortunately the knowledge of these techniques is not very popular with oncologic surgeons. Therefore we suggest as a clinical topic the role of reconstructive surgery in the multimodal treatment of oncologic patients. The focus will be on different areas of the body, therefore articels for reconstructional procedures at the head, the extremities, the trunk, the thoracic wall, the breast, and the foot will be invited. Another focus will be the role of reconstructive procedures in the multimodal treatment concept consisting of radiation and chemotherapy as well. By knowing and applying the opportunities of plastic surgery the quality of live of the oncologic patient can be significantly improved.

Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038424369 9783038424376 Year: Pages: VIII, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-437-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:51:34
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Flexible and stretchable electronics are receiving tremendous attention as future electronics due to their flexibility and light weight, especially as applications in wearable electronics. Flexible electronics are usually fabricated on heat sensitive flexible substrates such as plastic, fabric or even paper, while stretchable electronics are usually fabricated from an elastomeric substrate to survive large deformation in their practical application. Therefore, successful fabrication of flexible electronics needs low temperature processable novel materials and a particular processing development because traditional materials and processes are not compatible with flexible/stretchable electronics. Huge technical challenges and opportunities surround these dramatic changes from the perspective of new material design and processing, new fabrication techniques, large deformation mechanics, new application development and so on. Here, we invited talented researchers to join us in this new vital field that holds the potential to reshape our future life, by contributing their words of wisdom from their particular perspective.

Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427490 9783038427506 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-750-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:26:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue "Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials" contains some of the latest developments in the field of small-scale contact mechanics for a wide range of materials and biological cells. The featured manuscript revealed a new ultra-high strain rate nanoindentation method that will enable new scientific understanding of time-dependent material properties. The book also presents unique material properties of super alloys and other structural materials characterized by indentation methods. In addition to engineering materials, deformation behaviors of live cancer cells on sharp pillar structures were discussed in this book with the hope to stimulate interest in the mechanical contact behaviors of biological cells.

Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making

Author:
ISBN: 9783038428879 9783038428886 Year: Pages: VI, 404 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 13:55:26
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry in the subject area of “Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making”. We invited contributions addressing novel techniques and tools for decision making (e.g., group or multi-criteria decision making) with notions that overcome the problem of finding the membership degree of each element as in Zadeh's original model. We could garner interesting articles on a variety of setups as well as applications. As a result, this book includes some novel techniques and tools for decision making, such as instrumental tools for analysis (correlation coefficients, similarity measures, aggregation operators) in various settings and novel methodological contributions (discrete optimization with fuzzy constraints, COMET, or fuzzy bi-matrix games) and applications (to project delivery systems, maintenance performance in industry, group emergencies, pedestrians flows, valuation of assets, water pollution control, or aquaculture enterprise sustainability). The published submissions cover models like fuzzy soft sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, (fuzzy) soft rough sets, neutrosophic sets, as well as other hybrid models.

Deformation and Fracture Properties of the Soft Magnetic Composite Somaloy 700 3P on Different Length Scales

Author:
Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731507598 Year: Volume: 74 Pages: XV, 141 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000080372 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Soft Magnetic Composites (SMCs) typically consist of large iron particles coated with a fairly thin inorganic layer. The combination of soft particles with a brittle layer causes, however, a rather poor mechanical behaviour of the SMCs. The particle boundaries of the specific SMC Somaloy 700 3P can be classified into four different types according to the complexity of their layers. Tests on both micro- and macroscale showed that the particle-boundary interface is critical in terms of failure.

From Natural to Artificial Intelligence - Algorithms and Applications

Author:
ISBN: 9781789847024 9781789847031 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71252 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field experiencing constant growth and change, with a long history. The challenge to reproduce human behavior in machines requires the interaction of many fields, from engineering to mathematics, from neurology to biology, from computer science to robotics, from web search to social networks, from machine learning to game theory, etc. Numerous applications and possibilities of AI are already a reality but other ones are still needed to reduce the human limitations and to expand the human capability to limits beyond our imagination. This book brings together researchers working on areas related to AI such as speech and face recognition, representation of learning and acoustic scenarios, fuzzy inference and data exploration, cellular automata applications with a special interest in the tools and algorithms that can be applied in these different branches of the AI discipline. The book provides a new reference to an audience interested in the development of this field.

Listing 1 - 10 of 50 << page
of 5
>>
Sort by