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Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038429258 9783038429265 Year: Pages: X, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:50:08
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to: Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes.

Toxins in Drug Discovery and Pharmacology

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ISBN: 9783038428619 9783038428626 Year: Pages: XII, 304 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 11:37:49
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Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as untapped cocktails of biologically active compounds that are being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Venomous animals are considered to be specialized predators that have evolved the most sophisticated peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology for their own biological purposes by producing venoms that contain a structural and functional diversity of neurotoxins. These neurotoxins appear to be highly selective ligands for a wide range of ion channels and receptors. Therefore, they represent interesting lead compounds for the development of analgesics, anti-cancer drugs, drugs for neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson' s disease, Alzheimer' s disease, and other therapeutics.This Special Issue of Toxins aims to provide a comprehensive look at toxins and toxin-inspired leads and will focus on the mechanisms of action, structure–function relationships, and evolution of pharmacologically interesting venom components, including the most recent developments related to the emergence of venoms as an underutilized source of highly evolved bioactive peptides with clinical potential.

Nutrients Intake and Hypertension

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ISBN: 9783039286621 / 9783039286638 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-663-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide, increasing cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Together with pharmacological treatments, non-pharmacological approaches, such as nutrient intake modifications, play an important role in optimizing treatment. A link has been demonstrated between hypertension and body weight as well as dietary habits. The aim of this Special Issue is to improve the understanding of the relationships between some nutrients and hypertension, and of the effects of different dietary approaches on hypertension regulation from different points of view.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039284108 9783039284115 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-411-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Sensors for Ultrasonic NDT in Harsh Environments

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ISBN: 9783039284221 / 9783039284238 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-423-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In this Special Issue of Sensors, seven peer-reviewed manuscripts appear on the topic of ultrasonic transducer design and operation in harsh environments: elevated temperature, high gamma and neutron radiation fields, or the presence of aggressive chemicals. Motivations for these research and development projects are strongly focused on nuclear power plant inspections (particularly liquid-sodium cooled reactors), and nondestructive testing of high-temperature piping installations. It is anticipated that extensive use of permanently mounted robust transducers for in-service monitoring of petrochemical plants and power generations stations; quality control in manufacturing plants; and primary and secondary process monitoring in the fabrication of engineering materials will soon be made.

Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers for Food and Health Applications

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ISBN: 9783039281923 9783039281930 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-193-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The electrospinning method has the unique ability to produce structured polymeric fibers on the micro or nano scale and to generate novel materials for food and healthcare purposes. The potential of electrospun nanofibers for human healthcare applications is promising, for example, in tissue/organ repair and regeneration, in medical diagnostics and instrumentation, and as vectors to deliver drugs and therapeutics, as biocompatible and biodegradable medical implant devices, as protective fabrics against environmental and infectious agents in hospitals and general surroundings. Furthermore, considerable effort has been directed toward developing scaffolds using biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic, natural polymers or renewable materials that enhance in vitro cell growth, while killing pathogenic bacteria cells. This Special Issue ""Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers for Food and Health Applications” will cover the latest research of electrospun nanofibres in this field including shape-memory electrospun fibre meshes with programmable cell orientation, water-absorbing nano?ber meshes for e?cient removal of excess water from kidney failure patients, and hydrogel nano?bers which can be used as a drug carrier for methylene blue.

Catalysts Deactivation, Poisoning and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039215461 9783039215478 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-547-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Catalyst lifetime represents one of the most crucial economic aspects in industrial catalytic processes, due to costly shutdowns, catalyst replacements, and proper disposal of spent materials. Not surprisingly, there is considerable motivation to understand and treat catalyst deactivation, poisoning, and regeneration, which causes this research topic to continue to grow. The complexity of catalyst poisoning obviously increases along with the increasing use of biomass/waste-derived/residual feedstocks and with requirements for cleaner and novel sustainable processes. This book collects 15 research papers providing insights into several scientific and technical aspects of catalyst poisoning and deactivation, proposing more tolerant catalyst formulations, and exploring possible regeneration strategies.

Keywords

hydrogenation --- copper --- catalyst --- water --- deactivation --- octanal --- octanol --- V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts --- poisoning --- sulfur-containing sodium salts --- SO3 --- NO removal --- Cu/SSZ-13 --- NH3-SCR --- sodium ions --- deactivation mechanism --- sulfur poisoning --- coke deposition --- in situ regeneration --- Co-Zn/H-Beta --- NOx reduction by C3H8 --- catalyst deactivation --- diesel --- natural gas --- SEM --- TEM --- poisoning --- oxygen storage capacity --- thermal stability --- cyclic operation --- deactivation --- oxysulfate --- oxysulfide --- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) --- SO2 poisoning --- Low-temperature catalyst --- nitrogen oxides --- nitrous oxide --- dry reforming of methane --- nickel catalysts --- barium carbonate --- deactivation by coking --- catalytic methane combustion --- exhaust gas --- catalyst durability --- Liquefied natural gas --- biogas --- vehicle emission control --- sulfur deactivation --- catalyst deactivation --- aluminum sulfate --- palladium sulfate --- regeneration --- phthalic anhydride --- vanadia-titania catalyst --- unusual deactivation --- physico-chemical characterization --- over-reduction --- vanadia species --- coke deposition --- DeNOx --- MW incinerator --- deactivation --- ammonium sulfates --- regeneration --- washing --- CO2 reforming --- Ni-catalyst --- syngas --- tetragonal zirconia --- phase stabilization --- CPO reactor --- effect of flow rate --- deactivation --- iso-octane --- Rh catalysts --- Rh --- homogeneous catalysis --- catalyst deactivation --- n/a

Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field

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ISBN: 9783039218486 9783039218493 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-849-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Development of strategies to assist the movement of poorly permeable molecules across biological barriers has long been the goal of drug delivery science. In the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in advanced drug delivery systems that aim to address this issue. However, most proprietary delivery technologies that have progressed to clinical development are based on permeation enhancers (PEs) that have a history of safe use in man. This Special Issue entitled “Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field” aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the application of PEs to improve drug absorption. Emphasis is placed on identification of novel permeation enhancers, mechanisms of barrier alteration, physicochemical properties of PEs that contribute to optimal enhancement action, new delivery models to assess PEs, studies assessing safety of PEs, approaches to assist translation of PEs into effective oral, nasal, ocular and vaginal dosage forms and combining PEs with other delivery strategies.

Keywords

absorption enhancers --- sugar-based surfactants --- biocompatibility studies --- transmucosal drug delivery --- intestinal permeation enhancers --- sodium cholate (NaC) --- N-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM) --- small intestine --- enterocyte --- brush border --- tryptophan --- oral delivery --- insulin --- GLP-1 --- intestinal absorption --- amino acid --- cell-penetrating peptide --- combined microsphere --- chitosan --- cyclodextrin --- nasal delivery --- nose to brain transport --- penetration enhancer --- nasal formulation --- in vivo studies --- nose to brain delivery --- antiepileptic drug --- drug delivery --- block copolymers --- thermogel system --- chitosan derivatives --- amphiphilic polymers --- polymeric micelles --- quaternization --- curcumin --- intestinal delivery --- mucoadhesiveness --- cervicovaginal tumors --- cationic functionalization --- imatinib --- nanocrystals --- in situ hydrogel --- bioenhancer --- cytochrome P450 --- drug absorption enhancer --- efflux --- metabolism --- P-glycoprotein --- pharmacokinetic interaction --- tight junction --- Aloe vera --- gel --- whole leaf --- absorption enhancement --- Caco-2 --- confocal laser scanning microscopy --- F-actin --- FITC-dextran --- tight junctions --- transepithelial electrical resistance --- permeation enhancer --- oral delivery --- formulation --- permeability --- safety --- simulated intestinal fluid --- hydrophobization --- epithelium --- compound 48/80 --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mast cell activator --- vaccine adjuvant --- nasal vaccination --- absorption enhancer --- antimicrobial peptide --- Caco-2 --- claudin --- cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) --- drug delivery --- intestinal epithelial cells --- KLAL --- PN159 --- tight junction modulator --- oral macromolecule delivery --- oral peptides --- sodium caprate --- salcaprozate sodium --- epithelial permeability --- epithelial transport --- nasal permeability --- nose-to-brain --- simvastatin --- nanocapsules --- mucoadhesion --- CNS disorders --- chitosan --- nasal --- pulmonary --- drug administration --- absorption enhancers --- nanoparticle --- and liposome --- absorption enhancer --- gemini surfactant --- intestinal absorption --- poorly absorbed drug --- Caco-2 cells --- PTH 1-34 --- teriparatide --- nasal delivery --- pharmacokinetics --- osteoporosis --- man --- sheep --- clinical trial --- preclinical --- Caco-2 --- intestinal absorption --- nanomedicine --- nanoparticle --- oral delivery --- transferrin --- ocular drug delivery --- cornea --- penetration enhancers --- ocular conditions --- ophthalmology --- permeation enhancers --- absorption modifying excipients --- oral delivery --- nasal delivery --- ocular delivery --- vaginal delivery --- transmucosal permeation

Modern Grinding Technology and Systems

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ISBN: 9783038429388 9783038429371 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-937-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This specialist edition features key innovations in the science and engineering of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems for a range of important industrial applications. Topics written by invited, internationally recognized authors review the advances and present results of research over a range of well-known grinding processes. A significant introductory review chapter explores innovations to achieve high productivity and very high precision in grinding. The reviewed applications range from grinding systems for very large lenses and reflectors, through to medium size grinding machine processes, and down to grinding very small components used in MEMS . Early research chapters explore the influence of grinding wheel topography on surface integrity and wheel wear. A novel chapter on abrasive processes also addresses the finishing of parts produced by additive manufacturing through mass finishing. Materials to be ground range from conventional engineering steels to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. The research findings highlight important new results for avoiding material sub-surface damage. The papers compiled in this book include references to many source publications which will be found invaluable for further research, such as new features introduced into control systems to improve process efficiency. The papers also reflect significant improvements and research findings relating to many aspects of grinding processes, including machines, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and fluid delivery. Finally, a definitive chapter summarizes the optimal settings for high precision and the achievement of centerless grinding stability.

Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies

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ISBN: 9783039219728 9783039219735 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-973-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The use of renewable energy is an effective solution for the prevention of global warming. On the other hand, environmental plasmas are one of powerful means to solve global environmental problems on nitrogen oxides, (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and carbon dioxides (CO2) in the atmosphere. By combining both technologies, we can develop an extremely effective environmental improvement technology. Based on this background, a Special Issue of the journal Energies on plasma processes for renewable energy technologies is planned. On the issue, we focus on environment plasma technologies that can effectively utilize renewable electric energy sources, such as photovoltaic power generation, biofuel power generation, wind turbine power generation, etc. However, any latest research results on plasma environmental improvement processes are welcome for submission. We are looking, among others, for papers on the following technical subjects in which either plasma can use renewable energy sources or can be used for renewable energy technologies: Plasma decomposition technology of harmful gases, such as the plasma denitrification method; Plasma removal technology of harmful particles, such as electrostatic precipitation; Plasma decomposition technology of harmful substances in liquid, such as gas–liquid interfacial plasma; Plasma-enhanced flow induction and heat transfer enhancement technologies, such as ionic wind device and plasma actuator; Plasma-enhanced combustion and fuel reforming; Other environment plasma technologies.

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