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The Origin and the Evolution of Firms

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ISBN: 9781607509561 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_413210 Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Biology --- Heat --- Astronomy (General) --- Science (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-21 00:00:00
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The firms and markets of today's complex socio-economic system developed in a spontaneous process termed evolution, in just the same way as the universe, the solar system, the Earth and all that lives upon it. Darwin's theory of evolution clearly demonstrated that evolution involved increasing organization. As we began to explore the molecular basis of life and its evolution, it became equally clear that it depended on the processing and communication of information. This book develops a consistent theory of evolution in its wider sense, examining the information based laws and forces that drive it. Exploring subjects as diverse as economics and the theories of thermodynamics, the author revisits the paradox of the apparent conflict between the laws of thermodynamics and evolution to arrive at a systems theory, tracing a continuous line of evolving information sets that connect the Big-Bang to the firms and markets of our current socio-economic system.

Imagining the Future: Young Australians on sex, love and community

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ISBN: 9781922064356 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.1017/9781922064356 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-09-27 02:37:35
License: University of Adelaide Press

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Do young Australians understand and live ‘equality’ and ‘difference’ differently from older generations? Is Australia the gender equal society that many claim it to be? How do we understand and explain growing economic inequality when our dominant ideologies are individualism and neoliberalism? What are or should be the limits of tolerance in our negotiation of cultural difference? Imagining the Future explores our contemporary complex equality narrative through the desires and dreams of 1000 young Australians and 230 of their parents from diverse backgrounds across Australia. This ‘extraordinary’ data set affords analysis of the impact of gender, socio-economic disadvantage, ethnicity, Aboriginality and sexuality on young people’s ‘imagined life stories’, or essays written about their future. An intergenerational comparison assesses how different young people really are from older generations. The book offers a compelling and subtle engagement with the sometimes ‘deeply moving’, sometimes ‘hilarious’ voices of young people to deliver insight into the challenges and complexity of gender and other social relations in early 21st Australian society.

Housing Estates in Europe

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: The Unknown Nineteenth Century ISBN: 9783319928135 9783319928128 Year: Pages: 429 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-92813-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 615159
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-22 11:21:09
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This open access book explores the formation and socio-spatial trajectories of large housing estates in Europe. Are these estates clustered or scattered? Which social groups originally had access to residential space in housing estates? What is the size, scale and geography of housing estates, their architectural and built environment composition, services and neighbourhood amenities, and metropolitan connectivity? How do housing estates contribute to the urban mosaic of neighborhoods by ethnic and socio-economic status? What types of policies and planning initiatives have been implemented in order to prevent the social downgrading of housing estates?&#xD;&#xD;The collection of chapters in this book addresses these questions from a new perspective previously unexplored in scholarly literature. The social aspects of housing estates are thoroughly investigated (including socio-demographic and economic characteristics of current and past inhabitants; ethnicity and segregation patterns; population dynamics; etc.), and the physical composition of housing estates is described in significant detail (including building materials; building form; architectural and landscape design; built environment characteristics; etc.). This book is timely because the recent global economic crisis and Europe’s immigration crisis demand a thorough investigation of the role large housing estates play in poverty and ethnic concentration. Through case studies of housing estates in 14 European centers, the book also identifies policy measures that have been used to address challenges in housing estates throughout Europe.

The e-Government Development Discourse

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ISBN: 9781928396574 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.4102/aosis.2018.BK71 Language: English
Publisher: AOSIS
Subject: Computer Science --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:21:04
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research agenda for e-Government. When e-Government was first conceived, it was designed upon basic technologies where the emphasis was only on the simple display of government information for citizens to read. Nowadays, e-Government design comprises many complicated modules such as upload and download consoles, two-way interaction consoles between citizens and government agents, integrated government business processes presenting the whole of government, and it does not depend solely on technology. The complexity of e-Government has now evolved to include political, cultural, economic, social and technical dimensions. Bringing all these difficult aspects together is so complicated that it needs carefully planned strategies informed by local contextual characteristics. Rather than giving formulaic definitions and conceptual standpoints on many aspects of e-Government, as is the case in many e-Government publications, this book will explore the frontiers of global knowledge value chains by discussing current and future dimensions of e-Government. For example, the book discusses the concept of data governance by exploring how actual opening up of government data can be achieved, especially in a developing world context. Further, the book posits that opening government data should be followed by the opening up of government business processes in order to peddle the concept of accountability and responsiveness. Much text on data governance has concentrated on articulating the basic definitions surrounding this concept. Another very important topic explored in this book is regarding how the concept of decolonisation can be extended to e-Government by providing practical examples as to how researchers in the developing world can contribute to the advancement of e-Government as a scientific field of enquiry and guide its implementation, thereof. Decolonisation is advocated for in e-Government research so that there is a balance in the inclusion of the Afrocentric knowledge into e-Government advancement other than over-reliance on the Euro-, Asia- and America-centric knowledge value chains (Mbembe 2015). As e-Government is a very expensive undertaking, the issue of funding has excluded African countries and a majority of the developing world from implementing e-Government. Despite funding being a critical cornerstone of e-Government development, there is a dearth of information on this topic. Therefore, this book provides a chapter which discusses traditional and innovative ways of funding e-Government design and implementation which can go a long way in improving e-Government penetration into the developing world. Further, the book explores how intelligent e-Government applications can be designed, especially in resource-constrained countries. A couple of emerging technology innovations such as fog computing and intelligent information technology are explored within the realm of e-Government design.

Ländliches Wirtschaftsleben im spätkolonialen Mexiko. Eine mikrohistorische Studie in einem multiethnischen Distrikt: Cholula 1750-1810

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ISBN: 9783980822343 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.6 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:25

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In the late colonial period, the rural area of Central Mexico was characterized by haciendas, by Spanish-mestic small towns and by indigenous communities, which were defined and composed ethnically according to Spanish law. This study uses microhistorical methods to study the city of Cholula and its rural environment. The focus is on economic processes within the municipalities and interethnic exchange relationships at the individual level. The focus of the study is on Indian households and their scope for economic action. The analysis of the distribution of land ownership in Cholula already shows a high proportion of land ownership in private property, a result that fundamentally contradicts the previous knowledge about the organization of indigenous communities. Their role as a reservoir of labour for the haciendas is well known. This study shows that individual households also produced and marketed significant quantities of different agricultural and industrial products. The proof of the manifold inter-ethnic exchange relationships calls into question the relevance of the traditional description categories "Indian" and "Spanish" for the rural areas of Central Mexico and points out numerous parallels to European agricultural societies of the 18th century.

The Nile

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Book Series: Mainzer Historische Cultural Studiesen ISBN: 9783837636154 9783839436158 Year: DOI: 10.26530/oapen_627663 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100591
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-20 11:01:33
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Although Herodot's dictum that "Egypt is a gift of the Nile" is proverbial, there has been only scant attention to the way the river impacted on ancient Egyptian society. Egyptologists frequently focus on the textual and iconographic record, whereas archaeologists and earth scientists approach the issue from the perspective of natural sciences. The contributions in this volume bridge this gap by analyzing the river both as a natural and as a cultural phenomenon. Adopting an approach of cultural ecology, it addresses issues like ancient land use, administration and taxation, irrigation, and religious concepts.

Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Science in Assessing the Health Status of Marine Ecosystems, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451265 Year: Pages: 546 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-126-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Marine management requires approaches which bring together the best research from the natural and social sciences. It requires stakeholders to be well-informed by science and to work across administrative and geographical boundaries, a feature especially important in the inter-connected marine environment. Marine management must ensure that the natural structure and functioning of ecosystems is maintained to provide ecosystem services. Once those marine ecosystem services have been created, they deliver societal goods as long as society inputs its skills, time, money and energy to gather those benefits. However, if societal goods and benefits are to be limitless, society requires appropriate administrative, legal and management mechanisms to ensure that the use of such benefits do not impact on environmental quality, but instead support its sustainable use.

Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038428473 9783038428480 Year: Pages: VI, 334 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 11:05:40
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Extreme sea levels can lead to hazardous events, such as coastal flooding, erosion, or salt water intrusion, with-wide ranging environmental, societal, and economic consequences. In combination with climate-driven sea-level rise, and, potentially, additional changes in storminess, dynamic wave contributions, and tidal dynamics, the adverse consequences of extreme oceanographic events are expected to escalate in many regions. Integrated coastal zone impact assessments can guide the decisions on the adaptive responses to these changes in the physical environment and for the socioeconomic development of the local communities.

Empirical Analysis of Determinants, Distribution and Dynamics of Poverty

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631573983 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3726/b13880 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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Poverty and inequality persist in many dimensions in the developing world. In order to understand the determinants of poverty and its distribution between and within countries, it is necessary to know its dimensions and the channels through which poverty and inequality affect human well-being. This book analyzes the spatial disparities of the outcomes and determinants of poverty, the interdependencies of dimensions of poverty, the distribution of progress in human development over the population and the dynamics of poverty risk over time. The study takes into account the global spread of poverty. Based on cross-country comparisons of countries from Africa, Latin America, and South Asia, this study does not only consider on average outcomes and determinants of different indicators of human well-being, but also examines their distribution between and within countries.

Towards Sustainable Global Food Systems. Conceptual and Policy Analysis of Agriculture, Food and Environment Linkages

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ISBN: 9783038978145 9783038978152 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-815-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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One of the major knowledge challenges in the domain of Resilient and Sustainable Food Systems refers to the integration of perspectives on consumption, patterns that support public health, inclusive value chains, and environmentally sustainable food production. While there is a long record of the analysis of separate interventions, this special issue generates integrated insights, provides cross-cutting perspectives, and outlines practical and policy solutions that address these global challenges.The collection of papers promotes the view that sustainable food systems require thorough insights into the structure and dynamics of agri-food production systems, the drivers for integrating food value chains and markets, and key incentives for supporting healthier consumer choices. On the production side, potential linkages between agricultural commercialization and intensification and their effects for food security and nutritional outcomes are analyzed. Value Chains are assessed for their contribution to improving exchange networks and markets for food products that simultaneously support efficiency, circularity, and responsiveness. Individual motives and market structures for food consumption need to be understood in order to be able to outline suitable incentives to enhance healthy dietary choice.The contributed papers focus on interfaces between food system activities and processes of adaptive change that are critical for overcoming key constraints and trade-offs between sustainable food and healthy diets.

Keywords

agricultural impacts --- climate change impacts --- integrated assessment model --- CGE model --- Ostrea edulis --- native oyster restoration --- North Sea --- site selection --- pilot study --- offshore wind farms --- sustainability --- food systems --- nutrition --- public-private cooperation --- corporate values --- sanitary control --- food safety --- prosperity --- sustainable development --- alternative agri-food networks --- transition theories --- grassroots innovations --- socio-technical systems --- agroecology --- ecovillages --- social movements --- certification --- organic agriculture --- Participatory Guarantee Systems --- Spain --- alternative certification systems --- food systems --- metrics --- interdisciplinarity --- sustainable food and nutrition security --- food system assessment --- participatory approach --- SUSFANS --- agribusiness cluster --- commercialization --- sustainable intensification --- dairy value chain --- farming system --- service arrangements --- Ethiopia --- Kenya --- sustainable diets --- diet adoption --- sustainable food system --- intention-behavior gap --- citizen participation --- innovation workshop --- Agricultural commercialization --- food and nutrition security --- salutogenesis --- life course perspective --- food systems --- multi-level --- positive deviance --- Myanmar --- social innovation --- agricultural commercialization --- nutrition sensitive transformation --- Myanmar --- vegetable consumption --- food choice motives --- knowledge --- self-efficacy --- socio-economic classes --- food environment --- Nigeria --- sustainable development goals --- sustainability assessment --- agricultural sustainability --- food security --- LCA broadening --- LCA deepening --- food systems --- interdisciplinary research --- feedbacks &amp --- interlinkages --- food policy --- 3I Approach --- value chain development --- participatory approach --- context-specific interventions --- behavioural change --- postharvest losses --- tomato --- Nigeria --- supply chain --- raffia basket --- plastic crate --- systems approach --- conceptual framework --- food loss practices --- food loss causes --- food loss solutions --- supply-chain stages --- literature --- socio-economic indicators --- tomato --- Nigeria --- adoption --- conservation agriculture --- social capital --- count outcome models --- pca --- marginal treatment effects --- Nigeria --- food security --- CGE model --- nutrition --- diet diversity --- land substitution --- agricultural intensification --- baseline projections --- commercialization --- Vietnam --- food system --- fertilizer use --- caloric intake --- dietary diversity Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS)

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