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Chapter 3 Sickness, disease and medical practitioners in 1640s Ireland (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Social Histories of Medicine ISBN: 9781526145147 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097782/Z/11/Z
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:03
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Abstract

This chapter explores the medical environment of 1640s Ireland, particularly during the 1641 Rebellion. It uses the 1641 Depositions to explore how people understood reported sickness and disease. It also traces the experiences of a broad range of medics during a period of warfare and significant social and political upheaval. In doing so, it enables an important new perspective on medicine in Early Modern Ireland.

On Being Human : Where Medicine, Ethics and Spirituality Converge

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ISBN: 9791036513862 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.pum.14901 Language: English
Publisher: Presses de l’Université de Montréal
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:44
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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At first glance, Western humanism, Japanese Buddhism and modern science have so little in common that the very idea of seeking common ground through dialogue seems overly idealistic. Only a man the calibre of Daisaku Ikeda could bring such a project to fruition. Firmly setting aside cliché and facile answers, he broaches the grand questions that face today's society: cancer, AIDS, death with dignity, in vitro fertilization, biomedical ethics… The responses offered by René Simard, molecular biologist and geneticist, and Guy Bourgeault, bioethicist, are insightful and compelling. Their discussions cut through linguistic and cultural barriers to present a vision of the potential – an the inherent challenges – of being human.

Keywords

medical ethics --- bioethics --- AIDS --- cancer --- sickness --- right to die

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

Polyamine Metabolism in Disease and Polyamine-Targeted Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039211524 9783039211531 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-153-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Polyamines are ubiquitous polycations essential for all cellular life. The most common polyamines in eukaryotes, spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, exist in millimolar intracellular concentrations that are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport. Polyamines interact with, and regulate, negatively charged macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and ion channels. Accordingly, alterations in polyamine metabolism affect cellular proliferation and survival through changes in gene expression and transcription, translation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these multifaceted polyamine functions contribute to multiple disease processes, thus their metabolism and function have been targeted for preventive or therapeutic intervention. The correlation between elevated polyamine levels and cancer is well established, and ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in the production of putrescine, is a bona fide transcriptional target of the Myc oncogene. Furthermore, induced polyamine catabolism contributes to carcinogenesis that is associated with certain forms of chronic infection and/or inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species. These and other characteristics specific to cancer cells have led to the development of polyamine-based agents and inhibitors aimed at exploiting the polyamine metabolic pathway for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive benefit. In addition to cancer, polyamines are involved in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, parasitic and infectious diseases, wound healing, ischemia/reperfusion injuries, and certain age-related conditions, as polyamines are known to decrease with age. As in cancer, polyamine-based therapies for these conditions are an area of active investigation. With recent advances in immunotherapy, interest has increased regarding polyamine-associated modulation of immune responses, as well as potential immunoregulation of polyamine metabolism, the results of which could have relevance to multiple disease processes. The goal of this Special Issue of Medical Sciences is to present the most recent advances in polyamine research as it relates to health, disease, and/or therapy.

Keywords

polyamine transport inhibitor --- Drosophila imaginal discs --- difluoromethylorthinine --- DFMO --- polyamine --- cancer --- metabolism --- difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport inhibitor --- pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma --- curcumin --- diferuloylmethane --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine --- NF-?B --- chemoprevention --- carcinogenesis --- polyphenol --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamines --- untranslated region --- polyamines --- ?-difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport system --- melanoma --- mutant BRAF --- spermine --- spermidine --- putrescine --- polyamine metabolism --- mast cells --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- M2 macrophages --- airway smooth muscle cells --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- polyamines --- pneumococcal pneumonia --- proteomics --- capsule --- complementation --- metabolism --- cadaverine --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- difluoromethylornithine --- eflornithine --- DFMO --- African sleeping sickness --- hirsutism --- colorectal cancer --- neuroblastoma --- aging --- atrophy --- autophagy --- oxidative stress --- polyamines --- skeletal muscle --- spermidine --- spermine oxidase --- transgenic mouse --- immunity --- T-lymphocytes --- B-lymphocytes --- tumor immunity --- metabolism --- epigenetics --- autoimmunity --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine analogs --- spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase --- spermine oxidase --- bis(ethyl)polyamine analogs --- breast cancer --- MCF-7 cells --- transgenic mice --- polyamines --- MYC --- protein synthesis in cancer --- neuroblastoma --- protein expression --- antizyme 1 --- ornithine decarboxylase --- CRISPR --- human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) --- cell differentiation --- DFMO --- ornithine decarboxylase --- osteosarcoma --- polyamines --- polyamines --- polyamine metabolism --- antizyme --- antizyme inhibitors --- ornithine decarboxylase --- Snyder-Robinson Syndrome --- spermine synthase --- X-linked intellectual disability --- polyamine transport --- spermidine --- spermine --- transglutaminase

Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents

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ISBN: 9783039215720 9783039215737 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-573-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

Acute inflammation is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the development of a chronic inflammatory state which is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the need to find new anti-inflammatory molecules has raised the scientific community´s interest for marine natural products. In this regard, the marine environment represents a source for isolating a wealth of bioactive compounds. In this Special Issue, the reported products have been obtained from microalgae, sea cucumber, octopus, squid, red alga-derived fungus, cnidarians, hard-shelled mussel, and sponges.

Keywords

THP-1 macrophages --- anti-inflammatory --- TLR4 --- NF-?B --- MAPK --- SPR analysis --- glycolipids --- MGDG --- skin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- microalgae --- Isochrysis galbana --- Frondanol --- Cucumaria frondosa --- DSS colitis --- colon inflammation --- zoantharia --- Tropical Eastern Pacific --- Zoanthus pulchellus --- zoanthamine --- inflammation --- fucoxanthin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- UVB --- photoprotection --- 6-bromoindole --- Geodia barretti --- anti-inflammatory activity --- dendritic cells --- T cell differentiation --- poor blood circulation --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol --- functional ingredients --- endothelial cell death --- vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration --- inflammation --- anti-inflammatory --- bioactive molecules --- microalgae --- polysaccharides --- carotenoids --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- fucoxanthin --- ultraviolet B --- denervation --- seafood waste --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- NO inhibition --- fish oil --- marine nutraceuticals --- fish oil --- omega-3 --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- inflammation --- eicosanoid --- cytokine --- surgery --- critical illness --- parenteral nutrition --- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) --- matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) --- interleukin (IL) --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- acute sickness behavior --- acute lung injury (ALI) --- prostaglandins --- clavulones --- punaglandins --- thromboxane --- inflammation --- marine vertebrates --- marine invertebrates --- diatoms --- macroalgae --- fucoxanthin --- rosmarinic acid --- NRLP3 --- inflammasome --- anti-oxidative --- anti-inflammatory --- photo-protection --- UVB

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