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microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039217144 9783039217151 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-715-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

MERS-CoV

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ISBN: 9783039218509 9783039218516 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-851-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic coronavirus. First identified in 2012, MERS-CoV has caused over 2460 infections and a fatality rate of about 35% in humans. Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS-CoV likely originated from bats; however, different from SARS-CoV, which potentially utilized palm civets as its intermediate hosts, MERS-CoV likely transmits to humans through dromedary camels. Animal models, such as humanized mice and nonhuman primates, have been developed for studying MERS-CoV infection. Currently, there are no vaccines and therapeutics approved for the prevention and treatment of MERS-CoV infection, although a number of them have been developed preclinically or tested clinically. This book covers one editorial and 16 articles (including seven review articles and nine original research papers) written by researchers working in the field of MERS-CoV. It describes the following three main aspects: (1) MERS-CoV epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis; (2) current progress on MERS-CoV animal models, vaccines, and therapeutics; and (3) challenges and future prospects for MERS-CoV research. Overall, this book will help researchers in the MERS-CoV field to further advance their work on the virus. It also has important implications for other coronaviruses as well as viruses outside the coronavirus family with pandemic potentials.

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