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Sedentary Behaviour in Human Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455478 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-547-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Sedentary behaviour – too much sitting as distinct from too little physical activity – is now recognised as an independent risk factor for several health outcomes and premature mortality. This is problematic as technological advancements in transportation, communications, workplaces, and domestic entertainment has created environments that encourage engagement in sedentary behaviour. Evidence from observational epidemiology shows that prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk of disease and adverse risk marker levels including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, glucose tolerance, and lipids. Importantly, the associations between prolonged sitting and these health markers are independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Intriguingly, observational studies employing objective measures of sedentary time patterns using accelerometry have shown that adults who interrupt their sedentary time more frequently (breaks in sedentary time) have improved cardiometabolic profiles than those whose sedentary time is mostly uninterrupted. These beneficial associations are independent of total sedentary time and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In light of this evidence, experimental studies are now being conducted to identify novel mechanisms and potential causal relationships. It has been suggested that loss of muscular contractile stimulation induced through sitting impairs skeletal muscle metabolism of lipids and glucose and that the molecular processes through which these responses occur may be separate from the pathways activated when engaging in exercise. This Research Topic aims to bring together contributions from researchers to advance the sedentary behaviour research agenda and strengthen the case for reducing and breaking up sitting time in primary prevention and disease management contexts.

Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Executive Control Across the Lifespan

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197484 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-748-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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There is overwhelming evidence linking increased physical activity with positive changes in cognitive functioning and brain health. Much of what we know about these interrelationships comes from aerobic exercise training studies with older adults and children. This literature has paved the way for the neuroscientific investigation of mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cognitive and brain health enhancement, a list that ranges from molecular changes to systemic changes in executive control and neural connectivity. A new perspective has also emerged that aims to understand executive control processes that may underlie the regulation of health behavior. In accordance with this view, physical activity falls under the umbrella of health behaviors that require a substantial amount of executive control. Executive control is a limited resource, and the aging process depletes this resource. People who regularly exercise are said to have higher “self-regulatory control”—planning, goal-shielding and impulse control—than irregular exercisers. The successful maintenance of physical activity participation in lieu of daily cognitive stressors likely reflects an adaptive resistance to control failures. Indeed, a handful of studies have shown the relationship between greater executive control and subsequently higher levels of physical activity. However, little is known about the neural correlates of physical activity adherence or sedentary behavior, with the view that neurocognitive factors have an antecedent and reciprocal influence on these behaviors. No research has focused on the brain networks responsible for the self-regulation of physical activity, which likely overlaps with structures and functions playing critical roles in the regulation of other health behaviors. Interdisciplinary investigations are needed to explain the extent to which physical activity self-regulation and self-regulatory failure is dependent upon, or under the influence of executive control processes and brain networks. Understanding the degree to which self-regulatory resources may be enhanced, restored, and trained will have enormous implications for basic science and applied fields. It is also of great import to understand whether or not physical activity self-regulation is a domain-specific behavior associated with specific brain networks, or to determine the extent to which regulatory network-sharing occurs. The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to curate contributions from researchers in social and cognitive neurosciences and related fields, whose work involves the study of physical activity behavior, self-regulation and executive control. For this Research Topic, we, therefore, solicit reviews, original research articles, and opinion papers, which draw theoretical or empirical connections related to sustained physical activity behavior, self-regulatory strategies, cognitive performance, and brain structure and function. While focusing on work in the neurosciences, this Research Topic also welcomes contributions in the form of behavioral studies, psychophysiological investigations, and methodological innovations. This Frontiers Research Topic will carve out new directions for the fields of exercise, cognitive, and social neurosciences. We hope you will consider submitting your work.

Emerging Technology Applications to Promote Physical Activity and Health

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ISBN: 9783038977087 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-709-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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As technology becomes an ever-more prevalent part of everyday life, and population-based physical activity programs seek new ways to increase life-long engagement with physical activity, these two ideas have become increasingly linked. This Special Issue attempts to offer a thorough and critical examination of emerging technologies in physical activity and health promotion, considering technological interventions in different contexts (communities, clinics, schools, homes, etc.) among various populations, exploring the challenges of integrating technology into physical activity promotion, and offering solutions for its implementation. This Special Issue aims to take a broadly positive stance toward interactive technology initiatives and, while discussing some negative implications of an increased use of technology, offers practical recommendations for promoting physical activity through various emerging technologies, including, but not limited to: Active video games (exergaming); social media; mobile device apps; health wearables; mobile games, augmented reality games, global positioning and geographic information systems; and virtual reality. Offering a logical and clear critique of emerging technologies in physical activity and health promotion, this Special Issue will provide useful suggestions and practical implications for researchers, practitioners, and educators in the fields of public health, kinesiology, physical activity and health, and healthcare.

Keywords

anxiety --- depression --- exercise --- mental health --- virtual reality --- senior citizens --- perceived environmental factor --- recreational physical activity --- screen based sedentary behavior --- pedometers --- accelerometers --- measurement --- physical activity levels --- active video games --- motor activity --- intelligence quotient --- young children --- physical activity --- quality of life --- social cognitive theory --- wearable technology --- real-time physical activity --- wearable technology --- fitness --- Fitbits --- breast cancer --- mammogram --- mobile phone-based health intervention --- mHealth --- app --- health navigator --- Korean American immigrant women --- Autism --- autism spectrum disorder --- augmented reality --- technology --- Google Glass --- social communication --- safety --- smartglasses --- digital health --- Amazon --- Amazon Web Services --- Google --- sedentary behaviour --- air quality --- socio-ecological model --- wrist-worn activity tracker --- active video games --- cardiorespiratory fitness --- locomotor skills --- motor skill competence --- musculoskeletal fitness --- object control skills --- active video game --- accelerometry --- physical activity assessment --- epoch --- placement site --- heart rate --- preoperative anxiety --- virtual reality game --- preoperative experience --- active video game --- light physical activity --- moderate-to-vigorous physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- sex difference --- active video gaming --- serious games --- physical activity --- physical exercise --- sedentary behavior --- narrative review

Walkable Neighborhoods: The Link between Public Health, Urban Design, and Transportation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219308 9783039219315 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-931-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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It is now widely recognized that individual-based motivational interventions alone are not sufficient to address the global pandemic of physical inactivity (lack of exercise and too much sitting time). There has been a growing interest in the effect the physically built environment can have on people’s active behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that surrounding physical environments can support active behaviors among a large number of people with long-term effects. This topic has received much attention over the last decade, mainly in the three fields of urban design, public health, and transportation. This Special Issue aims to provide multidisciplinary and evidence-based state-of-the-art research on how the locations where people live impact their active behaviors and health outcomes.

Keywords

urban design --- active living --- aging --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- age-friendly environments --- older adult --- physical activity --- social connectedness --- physical environment --- citizen science --- Discovery Tool --- built environment --- urban health --- urban form --- walking --- physical activity --- health promotion --- walkability --- neighborhood --- older adult --- chronic diseases --- body mass --- disease mapping --- geographic variation --- obese --- overweight --- spatial analysis --- walkability --- traffic safety --- walking --- cycling --- infrastructure --- active travel --- active transport --- neighbourhood --- scale --- built environment --- physical activity --- walking --- soft mobility --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- health outcomes --- active living --- street network configuration --- peripheral neighbourhoods --- pedestrian flow --- streetscape features --- Istanbul --- walkable neighborhood --- sitting --- elderly --- built environment --- non-communicable diseases --- Africa --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- sedentary behaviour --- neighbourhood --- walkability --- active living --- survey --- questionnaire --- mobility management --- public transport --- step counts --- city planning --- compact city --- neighborhood --- natural experiment --- built environment --- urban design --- policy evaluation --- active living --- liveability --- Australia --- walkability --- environment --- overweight --- obesity --- review

Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216000 9783039216017 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new information on the existing research elucidating important aspects of children’s and adolescents’ nutrition and lifestyle behavior. The data included in this Special Issue are from large epidemiological studies, including several multicenter and multinational studies, as well as datasets from surveillance initiatives. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include the co-occurrence of multiple health behaviors in children, the role of parenting and early feeding practices, dairy consumption in childhood, validity of dietary intake data, dietary supplement use in children, as well as socioeconomic disparities and eating culture. The diverse articles in this Special Issue highlight the complexity and extent to which nutrition and physical activity behaviors may influence different health aspects of children and adolescents. As seen by the various findings and recommendations, not only is more work in this area required but the translation of this work to practice and policy is imperative if we are to address the challenges impacting the nutrition, physical activity, and health of young populations.

Keywords

diet --- inflammation --- children’s-dietary inflammatory index --- body composition --- primary school --- dietary pattern --- principal component analysis --- reduced rank regression --- prevention --- validation study --- dietary assessment methods --- food diary --- cross-classification --- children --- whole diet --- preschool --- DAGIS Study --- diet quality --- PANDiet index --- early childhood --- nutritional adequacy --- nutrient intake quality --- growing up milk --- eating behaviour --- psychological eating style --- negative emotions --- Emotion-Induced Eating Scale --- health behaviour --- BMI --- home food environment --- Healthy Eating Index --- dietary quality --- validation --- psychometric --- consumption behavior --- knowledge --- Melanesian --- Pacific --- physical activity --- sugar-sweetened beverage --- noncommunicable diseases --- weight status --- self-weight perception --- cluster analysis --- energy balance-related behaviors --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- screen time --- dietary intake --- overweight --- obesity --- children --- family meals --- food parenting practices --- preschoolers --- nutrition risk --- direct observation --- adolescents --- children --- determinants --- dietary supplements --- food choice --- intervention --- nutrition --- preschool --- child --- parent --- dairy --- calcium --- migration status --- dietary habits --- food frequency questionnaire --- socioeconomic disparities --- adolescents --- pediatric --- overweight --- epidemiological transition --- collaboration --- childhood obesity --- CEBQ --- eating behavior and Ile251Leu --- breakfast --- obesity --- cardiovascular --- health --- BMI --- waist circumference --- cholesterol --- blood pressure --- MyHeARTs --- breastfeeding --- formula milk --- taste preference --- healthy diet adherence --- children --- IDEFICS study --- I.Family --- screen time --- physical activity --- preschool children --- food and beverage consumption --- Physical activity --- exercise --- food intake --- diet --- children --- adolescents --- KiGGS --- children --- mothers --- vegetable intake --- consumption behaviors --- choice --- preferences --- vitamin --- mineral --- dietary supplements --- adolescents --- EsKiMo --- dietary screener --- obesity prevention --- sweet preference --- children --- diet quality --- dietary behavior --- physical activity --- young populations --- surveillance --- epidemiology --- public health

Sustainable Work Ability and Aging

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ISBN: 9783039280643 9783039280650 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-065-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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In many industrialized countries, there is a sharp increase of the aging population due to a decrease in fertility rate and an increase in life expectancy. Due to which, the age dependency ratio rises and may cause increased economic burden among working age population. One strategy to combat this problem is to prolong peoples working career. A sufficient work ability is a requirement for a sustainable and prolonged employment. Work ability is primarily a question of balance between work and personal resources. Personal resources change with age, whereas work demands may not change parallel to that, or only change due to globalization or new technology. Work ability, on average, decreases with age, although several different work ability pathways exist during the life course. Work-related factors, as well as general lifestyle, may explain the declines and improvements in work ability during aging. A sustainable work ability throughout the life course is a main incentive for a prolonged working career and a healthy aging. Work ability and work-related factors, are therefore important occupational and public health issues when the age of the population increases. This Special Issue, “Sustainable Work Ability and Aging”, includes in all 16 original articles and one opinion paper, organized in three sections. The research topics cover

Keywords

group identification --- older workers --- job performance --- psychological capital --- self-efficacy --- age difference --- exhaustion --- well-being --- work stress --- work environment --- stress --- occupational health --- intervention --- burnout --- well-being --- job resources --- job demands --- burnout --- occupational turnover intention --- JD-R model --- longitudinal approach --- Dutch nurses --- age --- occupational cohort --- register-based --- work disability --- sedentary --- physical heaviness --- prospective --- e-health --- health promotion --- prevention --- sustainable employment --- work ability --- stress --- social status --- aging workforces --- health --- intermediate outcomes --- sustainable employment --- occupational health --- work ability --- aging --- short-form validation --- need for recovery --- criterion validity --- construct validity --- content validity --- responsiveness --- work ability --- work environment --- physical hazards --- psychosocial hazards --- multisite pain --- musculoskeletal pain --- trajectories --- intention to retire --- work ability --- ageing workers --- work wellbeing --- psychosocial work exposures --- perceived work ability --- meaningfulness of work --- perceived fit with current job --- future-orientedness of the job --- sustainable careers --- age --- work ability index (WAI) --- work ability concept --- intervention research --- knowing–doing gap --- implementation --- healthy aging --- work --- occupational stress --- occupational health --- socioeconomic factors --- data accuracy --- demography --- work ability --- life course --- aging --- longitudinal studies --- prolonged work career --- healthcare worker --- work ability --- work ability index --- WAI --- measurement --- occupational health --- occupational epidemiology --- WAI --- municipal workers --- prospective study --- COPSOQ II --- predictive factors --- predictors --- voluntary --- involuntary --- workforce transitions --- mature ages --- Australia

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