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The Future of Scholarly Publishing: Open Access and the Economics of Digitisation

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ISBN: 9781928331537 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1003186 Language: English
Publisher: African Minds
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-08 13:02:32
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The formal scientific communication system is currently undergoing significant change. This is due to four developments: the digitisation of formal science communication; the economisation of academic publishing as profit drives many academic publishers and other providers of information; an increase in the self-observation of science by means of publication, citation and utility-based indicators; and the medialisation of science as its observation by the mass media intensifies. Previously, these developments have only been dealt with individually in the literature and by science-policy actors.The Future of Scholarly Publishing documents the materials and results of an interdisciplinary working group commissioned by the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (BBAW) to analyse the future of scholarly publishing and to make recommendations on how to respond to the challenges posed by these developments. As per the working group’s intention, the focus was mainly on the sciences and humanities in Germany. However, in the course of the work it became clear that the issues discussed by the group are equally relevant for academic publishing in other countries. As such, this book will contribute to the transfer of ideas and perspectives, and allow for mutual learning about the current and future state of scientific publishing in different settings.

Science Communication in South Africa

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ISBN: 9781928502036 9781928502043 9781928502050 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3557206 Language: English
Publisher: African Minds
Subject: Science (General) --- Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-17 11:21:03
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"Why do we need to communicate science? Is science, with its highly specialised language and its arcane methods, too distant to be understood by the public? Is it really possible for citizens to participate meaningfully in scientific research projects and debate? Should scientists be mandated to engage with the public to facilitate better understanding of science? How can they best communicate their special knowledge to be intelligible? These and a plethora of related questions are being raised by researchers and politicians alike as they have become convinced that science and society need to draw nearer to one another.

Once the persuasion took hold that science should open up to the public and these questions were raised, it became clear that coming up with satisfactory answers would be a complex challenge. The inaccessibility of scientific language and methods, due to ever increasing specialisation, is at the base of its very success. Thus, translating specialised knowledge to become understandable, interesting and relevant to various publics creates particular perils. This is exacerbated by the ongoing disruption of the public discourse through the digitisation of communication platforms. For example, the availability of medical knowledge on the internet and the immense opportunities to inform oneself about health risks via social media are undermined by the manipulable nature of this technology that does not allow its users to distinguish between credible content and misinformation.

In countries around the world, scientists, policy-makers and the public have high hopes for science communication: that it may elevate its populations educationally, that it may raise the level of sound decision-making for people in their daily lives, and that it may contribute to innovation and economic well-being. This collection of current reflections gives an insight into the issues that have to be addressed by research to reach these noble goals, for South Africa and by South Africans in particular."

Turn on the light on science

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ISBN: 9781911529040 9781911529057 9781911529064 9781911529071 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.5334/bba Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Education --- Gender Studies --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 11:03:37
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"Scientists deserve public recognition. The ways that they are depicted, however, are severely limited in physical and personal traits, helping to establish and enhance stereotypes under the general title of ‘scientist’. These stereotypes range from the arrogant researcher who wants to rule the world, to the lab coat wearing ‘nerdy’ genius, but all generally fall to an extreme view of an existing perception of what a scientist should look and be like. For example, the popular image of ‘a scientist’ overlooks the presence of women almost entirely unless attributed to specific subjects and/or with narrow character depictions. The implications can be far-reaching. Young people, being heavily swayed by what they see and hear in the media, may avoid scientific careers because of these limited or unflattering portrayals of the scientific community, regardless of whether they reflect real life. Based on findings from the Light’13 project, this book examines such stereotypes and questions whether it is possible to adjust people’s perception of scientists and to increase interest in science and scientific careers through a series of specific actions and events."

Gegenstücke

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ISBN: 9783205795117 Year: Pages: 394 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_512254 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 119
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-04 09:02:37
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„Gegenstücke“ examines science communication as a cultural, social, and epistemic practice that is shaped by its historical contexts as well as its material and medial conditions. It is focusing mainly on two popular science magazines, Bild der Wissenschaft and Scientific American, established in West Germany in 1964, and in New York in 1845 respectively. Both magazines and their relationship are part of a history of imitation and nationalization and thus an extremely complex example for processes of producing popular knowledge.

Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm

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ISBN: 9783039280964 / 9783039280971 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-097-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) outbreaks are a dominant natural disturbance in the forests of Canada and northeastern USA. Widespread, severe defoliation by this native insect results in large-scale mortality and growth reductions of spruce (Picea sp.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) forests, and largely determines future age–class structure and productivity. The last major spruce budworm outbreak defoliated over 58 million hectares in the 1970s–1980s, and caused 32–43 million m3/year of timber volume losses from 1978 to 1987, in Canada. Management to deal with spruce budworm outbreaks has emphasized forest protection, spraying registered insecticides to prevent defoliation and keep trees alive. Other tactics can include salvage harvesting, altering harvest schedules to remove the most susceptible stands, or reducing future susceptibility by planting or thinning. Chemical insecticides are no longer used, and protection strategies use biological insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) or tebufenozide, a specific insect growth regulator. Over the last five years, a $30 million research project has tested another possible management tactic, termed an ‘early intervention strategy’, aimed at area-wide management of spruce budworm populations. This includes intensive monitoring to detect ‘hot spots’ of rising budworm populations before defoliation occurs, targeted insecticide treatment to prevent spread, and detailed research into target and non-target insect effects. The objective of this Special Issue is to compile the most recent research on protection strategies against spruce budworm. A series of papers will describe results and prospects for the use of an early intervention strategy in spruce budworm and other insect management.

Keywords

forest pests --- defoliation --- spruce budworm --- multi-spectral remote sensing --- Acadian region --- Maine --- Quebec --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- Abies balsamea --- hardwood content --- defoliation prediction --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- annual defoliation --- spatial autocorrelation --- spatial-temporal patterns --- mixed effect models --- intertree variance --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- optimized treatment design --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- computable general equilibrium model --- Pinaceae --- endophytic fungi --- plant tolerance --- Phialocephala scopiformis --- Picea glauca --- spruce budworm --- phenology --- insect susceptibility --- spruce budworm --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- egg recruitment --- apparent fecundity --- growth rate --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- survival --- apparent fecundity --- immigration --- growth rate --- treatment threshold --- insecticides --- spruce budworm --- moth --- tortricidae --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- pheromone mating disruption --- migration --- dispersal --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- moth --- Lepidoptera --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- migration --- simulation --- aerobiology --- moths --- migration --- forest protection --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) --- early intervention strategy --- modelling --- circadian rhythm --- foliage protection --- population control --- monitoring --- area-wide management --- science communication --- economic and ecological cost: benefit analyses --- early intervention strategy --- foliage protection --- defoliation --- monitoring --- insecticide application

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 / 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

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