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Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451555 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-155-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of diseases with the inflammatory component such as such as allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowl disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), chronic sinusitis, and many other conditions. The majority of these diseases are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, the role of certain microorganisms and viruses in triggering or sustaining the inflammatory process is most controversial. In rheumatoid arthritis, for example, the following bacteria and viruses have been implicated in triggering the disease: Mycoplasma spp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Bordetella spp., Acinetobacter spp., the parvoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and retroviruses. The list of putative microbial triggers of rheumatoid arthritis is still growing, and it becomes essentially impossible to make a causation link between certain infectious agents and the disease. In the light of these disappointing results there are calls for even larger studies with the use of more advanced and large-scale technologies. The primary function of the immune system is the maintenance of body homeostasis and protection against any threats to it via several lines of elaborate and complex immune defense. Given even higher complexity that involves the microbiota and the corresponding host-microbe interaction, the conditions for this equilibrium become even more challenging. In the absence of a defined pathogen, for example, the spectrum of microorganisms involved in triggering inappropriate immune responses may include polymicrobial communities or the cumulative effect of several microbial/viral factors. Under the normal circumstances there is a fine-tuned balance between commensal microbiota and the host’s immune responses. However, when this balance is compromised, for example in IBD, a massive immune response is launched against commensal microbiota resulting in chronic inflammation. Besides the microbial/viral factors, the balance of the immune system can be compromised by other causes. Given, for example, the close and inclusive interaction of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the list of these provoking factors can expand even more. For instance, it has been demonstrated that even mild sleep deprivation may increase the production of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Understanding the complex role of microbial and environmental factors in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therefore, is the main subject of this topic.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease

ISBN: 9783038422723 9783038422730 Year: Pages: XII, 312 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-11 19:02:10
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The role of major dietary omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3; α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in human health has generated enormous scientific interest and many controversies in recent years. Due to a growing number of studies with conflicting or even negative clinical results, the former “hype” of Ω-3 thought to be beneficial in many aspects of human health regardless of the physiological and clinical preconditions is now being critically re-evaluated, especially with respect to the potential role of Ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing a variety of diseases and clinical conditions. This critical view reflects the complex interaction of Ω-3 with cell membranes and their integrated proteins mediating signal transduction, transport systems, and other processes. Moreover, Ω-3 are precursors of bioactive metabolites, such as eicosanoids, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids that influence several physiological and pathophysiological processes and their full spectrum of effects are only beginning to be defined. Finally, physiological and pathophysiological conditions as well as concomitant pharmacological treatments may influence the specific and non-specific actions of Ω-3 supplementation.This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine will emphasize the role and biological interactions of Ω-3 with regard to cancer, psychiatric disorders, metabolic disorders and nutrition and will also reflect on some basic molecular and cellular mechanisms.

Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis

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ISBN: 9783038970651 9783038970668 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-066-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 different types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for arthritis patients. This book summarizes and discusses the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.

Keywords

biosimilars --- Th9 lymphocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- infliximab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- bone erosion --- osteoblasts --- next-generation sequencing --- bioinformatics --- microRNA --- messenger RNA --- osteoarthritis --- cell signaling --- IL1? --- WNT --- antagonists --- computational modeling --- nitric oxide --- clodronate --- gene expression --- osteoarthritis --- progenitor cells --- SOX9 --- spondyloarthropathies --- inflammation --- mesenchymal stem cells --- visfatin --- IL-6 --- TNF-? --- osteoarthritis --- miR-199a-5p --- Epstein-Barr virus --- glycoprotein 42 --- rheumatoid arthritis --- shared epitope --- triptolide --- rheumatoid arthritis --- basic research --- clinical translation --- osteoarthritis (OA) --- articular cartilage --- molecular pathology --- therapeutics --- rheumatoid arthritis --- antibodies --- collagen --- glycosylation --- disease pathways --- therapy --- experimental arthritis --- TNF? --- etanercept --- infliximab --- adalimumab --- certolizumab pegol --- golimumab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- therapeutic antibody --- structure --- fraxinellone --- collagen-induced arthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- inflammatory arthritis --- osteoclastogenesis --- sclareol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- synovial cell --- collagen --- mice --- cytokines --- Th17 --- MAPK --- arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- small-molecule inhibitor --- chondrocytes --- tumor necrosis factor-alpha --- inflammation --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- angiogenesis --- cytokines --- chemokines --- early osteoarthritis --- articular cartilage --- proliferation --- fibroblast growth factor 2 --- mitogen activated protein kinase --- transforming growth factor ? --- SMA- and MAD-related protein --- interleukin --- nuclear factor kappa B --- miRNA --- adjuvant arthritis --- arthritis --- biomarkers --- celastrol --- inflammation --- microRNA --- miRNA --- rat --- rheumatoid arthritis --- Traditional Chinese medicine --- tripterine --- triterpenoid --- spinal fusion --- biological --- osteoblast --- osteoclast --- bisphosphonate --- parathyroid hormone --- bone morphogenetic protein --- receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B --- stem cell --- drug delivery system --- anticitrullinated peptide antibodies --- antirheumatic drug --- autoimmune --- disease-modifying --- immunology --- pathology --- rheumatoid factor --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- adipokines --- obesity --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- anti-arthritis --- biomarkers

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216468 9783039216475 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-647-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Keywords

microbiota --- rheumatoid arthritis --- anti-TNF-? --- methotrexate --- etanercept --- disease activity --- microbiome --- health --- precision medicine --- genomics --- bacteriocins --- bacteriophages --- antibiotics --- gastrointestinal diseases --- dysbiosis --- gut barrier --- gut microbiota --- virus --- vaginal microbiota --- HIV --- HPV --- HSV2 --- cytokines --- chemokines --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- microbiota --- autoimmunity --- etiopathogenesis --- Candida albicans --- 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyBenzaldehyde --- melanin --- colitis --- anaerobic bacteria --- aerobic bacteria --- gut microbiota --- gut-liver axis --- chronic liver diseases --- fecal transplantation --- probiotics --- gut microbiota --- immunological niche --- dysbiosis --- cancer --- immune system --- cutaneous immunity --- microbiome --- Staphylococcus spp., T cells --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Staphylococcus epidermis --- commensals --- atopic dermatitis --- intravenous immunoglobulin G --- colitis --- dextran sulfate sodium --- mice --- inflammation --- cytokines --- Candida albicans --- Escherichia coli --- Enterococcus faecalis --- gut microbiota --- chemo free treatment --- lymphoid malignancies --- 16S rRNA gene --- chondroitin sulfate disaccharide --- co-occurrence network --- global network --- microbial interactions --- microbiome --- modularity --- superoxide dismutase --- gut microbiota --- macrophages --- TLR mimicry --- immune epigenetics --- metabolism --- sterile inflammation --- microbiota --- microbiome --- immunotherapy --- adoptive cell transfer (ACT) --- CAR T-cell --- TCR --- TIL --- checkpoint inhibitors --- immuno-oncology --- cancer --- diet --- n/a

Synthesis, Study and Utilization of Natural Products

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281527 9783039281534 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-153-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Natural products and the preparations based on them play a stable and ever-increasing role in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, in food and the cosmetic industry, and in an increasing number of other fields. Their importance is based on the fact that they are mostly bound to renewable sources, which in fact makes them valuable within a circular economy, inter alia. At the same time, natural products provide the origin of stereochemistry, optical activity, regioselectivity, chirality, and many other concepts and directions within science, development, and industry in a scope, which is indispensable. They serve as a constant powerful stimulus and model that inspires researchers to create new effective tools, similar to natural ones, for controlling bioregulation mechanisms and solving practical problems. This was the reason for organizing this Special Issue aimed at underlining the current developments in all the fields connected to natural products.

Keywords

insect sex pheromone --- tea tussock moth --- total synthesis --- resource chemistry --- phycocyanin --- biosynthesis --- antioxidant --- Spirulina --- gene expression --- apo-CpcB --- Plantago depressa --- octadecanoid --- fatty acid --- natural enantiomer --- anti-inflammation --- soy protein isolate --- bromelain --- triglycidylamine --- viscosity --- water resistance --- adhesive --- Ramulus mori --- polysaccharides --- bioactivity --- synthesis of natural products --- varioxiranol A --- 4-epi-varioxiranol A --- absolute structure --- Emericella variecolor --- caffeoylquinic acids --- chlorogenic acid --- derivatives --- lipid-lowering effects --- oleic acid-elicited --- HepG2 cells --- isosorbide --- reversible urethane linkages --- cell opening --- antioxidant activity --- radical scavenger --- flexible polyurethane foam --- tomato --- SlCOMT1 --- melatonin --- genetical transformation --- salt stress --- natural product --- RiPP --- ribosomally synthesized --- post-translationally modified peptides --- rheumatoid arthritis --- natural products --- polyphenol --- flavonoids --- phenolic acid --- stilbene --- ginkgolide --- platelet-activating factor receptor --- inhibitor --- pinocembrin --- microbial biosynthesis --- pharmacological activities --- pharmacokinetic features --- research progress --- triterpenoids --- bardoxolone methyl --- anticancer drug --- mitochondria --- apoptosis --- cancer cells --- cytotoxicity --- flow cytometry --- live-cell fluorescence microscopy --- PEGylated purpurin 18 --- photodynamic therapy --- photosensitizer --- phototoxicity --- singlet oxygen --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 1

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280827 9783039280834 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-083-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281145 9783039281152 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

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