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Ethik als Kommunikation - zur Praxis klinischer Ethik-Komitees in theologischer Perspektive

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ISBN: 9783940344182 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.17875/gup2008-382 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Religion --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 23:04:47
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»Zu Risiken und Nebenwirkungen fragen Sie Ihren Arzt, Apotheker — oder das Klinische Ethik-Komitee in Ihrer Umgebung.« Die Einrichtung von Klinischen Ethik-Komitees ist eine direkte Reaktion auf die Professionalisierung des Medizinbetriebs und die Erfolge in der Medizintechnik. Seit jeher bezeichnet man mit Fortschritt in der Medizin mehr als nur einen technischen Fortschritt. Gerade dessen unbestreitbare Erfolge stellen Mediziner, Pflegekräfte, Seelsorger und die Geschäftsführung zugleich vor neue Fragen und Probleme. Mit der Institutionalisierung klinischer Ethikberatung verbindet sich die Erwartung, die komplexen Verständigungsprozesse auf eine gemeinsame Grundlage zu stellen. Welche Aufgaben übernehmen Ethik-Komitees in Krankenhäusern? Wie wird dort Ethik zum Thema? Und wie kommunizieren Theologen und Pflegekräfte in diesen Gremien? Die Beiträge dieses Bandes fassen aus theologischer und philosophischer Sicht zentrale Forschungsergebnisse zusammen, die im Rahmen des DFG-geförderten Forschungsprojekts »Ethik und Organisation« zur Diskussion standen.

Geschichte lernen im digitalen Wandel

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ISBN: 9783486858662 9783110399042 Year: Pages: xvi, 173 DOI: 10.1515/9783486858662 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-29 09:29:07
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Young people communicate through social networks, and seek information and opinion online. They participate publicly in real-time social debates. These radical changes in their life worlds have implications for their views of history and for the collective historical culture. Thus, historical instruction is facing entirely new challenges. The contributors to this volume submitted to an open review process prior to publication.

Arbeit im Nationalsozialismus

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ISBN: 9783486858846 9783110399073 Year: Pages: 403 DOI: 10.1515/9783486858846 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-13 13:31:08
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Work was a core concept in National Socialism. In pre-war concentration camps, it was a tool for converting prisoners into Volksgenossen, or members of the national community. And during the war, forced labor was crucial to armaments production. “Ability to work” meant life or death for Jews, POWs, and others. The essays in this volume explore the multiple meanings of work as a social, political, and cultural practice in National Socialism.

Historyblogosphere. Bloggen in den Geschichtswissenschaften

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ISBN: 9783486755732 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.1524/9783486755732 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-07 16:15:32
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For the first time in the German language historical disciplines, a book has been subject to open peer review as it was developed. All contributions were discussed online with comments. The ‘history blogosphere’ has thereby engaged in understanding an especially timely topic– namely, the medium of the blog itself.

The biology and ecology of ticks shape the potential for the transmission of zoonotic pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194063 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-406-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Ticks are noticeable by the high diversity of pathogens they can transmit, most of them with implications in human and animal health. Ticks are arachnids, meaning that they do not share the biological and ecological features of the mosquitoes and other parasitic Diptera. The natural foci of tick-borne pathogens may be as large as a continent, or be restricted to small portions of a country, without apparently too many similar features. The life cycle of the ticks involved three developing instars. The precise relationships of ticks and their hosts, the specific seasonal pattern of activity of ticks, and the still poorly known molecular relationships between ticks and the pathogens they can transmit, make these vectors a specially fecund field of research. Importantly, extensive studies on the biological and ecological relationships of ticks and abiotic (climate and vegetation) conditions have revealed the fine-tuning of the ticks and the pathogens they transmit, together with the biological effects of host and the driving features by the climate. The studies on tick-transmitted pathogens have been on the rise in the last years. There is a growing interest in understand the somewhat complex relationships between the landscape, the climate, the vectors and the pathogens, because the concerns of spread, probably driven by subtle changes in climate and man made alterations of the landscape. Studies on Lyme borreliosis are addressing the interesting issue of the relationships between the climate, the tick activity patterns, and the selection of strains according to the reservoir availability. Furthermore, the expanding field of habitat suitability modeling has been applied with different degrees of success to evaluate and quantify the risk of disease transmission. In such exponentially growing field, revisionary books are clearly welcome additions to the bibliographical tools of researchers. It is however necessary the compilation of works devoted to explore the tip of the iceberg in the field of research. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the studies on ecology, molecular biology, and tick-host-pathogens interactions, provided to resolve the important issues of ticks and pathogens. We want not only the results obtained by newly developed molecular tools, but rigorous reviews of the most recent advances in these issues. This Topic will cover aspects of both human and animal health, with special interest on zoonoses. Aspects of the biology of the ticks, as affecting the transmission of pathogens, are of special interest in this Topic. Studies on ticks of the poorly known family Argasidae, as related to their involvement on pathogen transmission, are especially welcome. We also wish to describe the perspective of the field in the future. Finally, the presentation of ongoing original works is greatly encouraged.

Industrial Relations in Schools

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780203989678 9781138159136 9780415080880 9781134893669 9781134893614 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203989678 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:21
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The subject of industrial relations is intimately connected with the nature of schooling - in particular, the teacher trade unions have played and will continue to play a crucial role in shaping the school system - yet this subject has been virtually neglected in educational literature. Mike Ironside and Roger Seifert's book redresses this balance and unravels the complex issues surrounding the employment and management of teachers. Recent changes in education have had massive implications for the way in which our education system is organised. In the light of recent events, this book questions who controls or ought to control schools, focusing on the government, Department of Education, LEA's, head teachers, school governors, parents and teaching unions. The authors argue that in order for schools to continue to function, industrial relations must be given priority, including the development of a proper framework for negotiation and the resolution of conflicts.

Keywords

collective --- bargaining --- performance --- related --- pay --- determination --- teacher --- unions --- review --- body

Intrinsic motivations and open-ended development in animals, humans, and robots

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193721 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-372-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The aim of this Research Topic for Frontiers in Psychology under the section of Cognitive Science and Frontiers in Neurorobotics is to present state-of-the-art research, whether theoretical, empirical, or computational investigations, on open-ended development driven by intrinsic motivations. The topic will address questions such as: How do motivations drive learning? How are complex skills built up from a foundation of simpler competencies? What are the neural and computational bases for intrinsically motivated learning? What is the contribution of intrinsic motivations to wider cognition? Autonomous development and lifelong open-ended learning are hallmarks of intelligence. Higher mammals, and especially humans, engage in activities that do not appear to directly serve the goals of survival, reproduction, or material advantage. Rather, a large part of their activity is intrinsically motivated - behavior driven by curiosity, play, interest in novel stimuli and surprising events, autonomous goal-setting, and the pleasure of acquiring new competencies. This allows the cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills that can later be used to accomplish fitness-enhancing goals. Intrinsic motivations continue during adulthood, and in humans artistic creativity, scientific discovery, and subjective well-being owe much to them. The study of intrinsically motivated behavior has a long history in psychological and ethological research, which is now being reinvigorated by perspectives from neuroscience, artificial intelligence and computer science. For example, recent neuroscientific research is discovering how neuromodulators like dopamine and noradrenaline relate not only to extrinsic rewards but also to novel and surprising events, how brain areas such as the superior colliculus and the hippocampus are involved in the perception and processing of events, novel stimuli, and novel associations of stimuli, and how violations of predictions and expectations influence learning and motivation. Computational approaches are characterizing the space of possible reinforcement learning algorithms and their augmentation by intrinsic reinforcements of different kinds. Research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems with increasing autonomy and capacity for self-improvement: artificial systems with motivations that are similar to those of real organisms and support prolonged autonomous learning. Computational research on intrinsic motivation is being complemented by, and closely interacting with, research that aims to build hierarchical architectures capable of acquiring, storing, and exploiting the knowledge and skills acquired through intrinsically motivated learning. Now is an important moment in the study of intrinsically motivated open-ended development, requiring contributions and integration across a large number of fields within the cognitive sciences. This Research Topic aims to contribute to this effort by welcoming papers carried out with ethological, psychological, neuroscientific and computational approaches, as well as research that cuts across disciplines and approaches.

Soft-Tissue Reconstruction Using Biologic Tissue Matrix: Where Do We Stand?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455034 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-503-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia, hiatal hernia, stomal hernia, anal fistula and pelvic floor replacement remains a challenge. There is an insufficient level of high-quality evidence in the literature on the value of bioprosthetics for soft-tissue reconstruction. An expanded knowledge about their clinical efficacy is urgently needed.

Chapter 5 Priority Species to Support the Functional Integrity of Coral Reefs (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9780429351495 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-12-11 00:04:03
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Ecosystem-based management on coral reefs has historically focused on biodiversity conservation through the establishment of marine reserves, but it is increasingly recognised that a subset of species can be key to the maintenance of ecosystem processes and functioning. Specific provisions for these key taxa are essential to biodiversity conservation and resilience-based adaptive management. While a wealth of literature addresses ecosystem functioning on coral reefs, available information covers only a subset of specific taxa, ecological processes and environmental stressors. What is lacking is a comparative assessment across the diverse range of coral reef species to synthesise available knowledge to inform science and management. Here we employed expert elicitation coupled with a literature review to generate the first comprehensive assessment of 70 taxonomically diverse and functionally distinct coral reef species from microbes to top predators to summarise reef functioning. Although our synthesis is largely through the lens of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, a particularly data-rich system, it is relevant to coral reefs in general. We use this assessment to evaluate which taxa drive processes that maintain a healthy reef, and whether or not management of these taxa is considered a priority (i.e. are they vulnerable?) or is feasible (i.e. can they be managed?). Scientific certainty was scored to weight our recommendations, particularly when certainty was low. We use five case studies to highlight critical gaps in knowledge that limit our understanding of ecosystem functioning. To inform the development of novel management strategies and research objectives, we identify taxa that support positive interactions and enhance ecosystem performance, including those where these roles are currently underappreciated. We conclude that current initiatives effectively capture many priority taxa, but that there is significant room to increase opportunities for underappreciated taxa in both science and management to maximally safeguard coral reef functioning.

Chapter 4 The Oceanography and Marine Ecology of Ningaloo, A World Heritage Area (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9780429351495 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-12-11 00:04:21
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The Ningaloo coast of north-western Australia (eastern Indian Ocean) hosts one of the world’s longest and most extensive fringing coral reef systems, along with globally-significant abundances of large marine fauna such as whale sharks. These characteristics — which have contributed to its inscription on the World Heritage list — exist because of the unique climatic, geomorphologic and oceanographic conditions. The region is hot and arid, so runoff of water from land is low, facilitating clear water that allows corals to grow close to the shore. The poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current is an important influence, bringing warm water and generally suppressing coastal upwelling. During the austral summer, strong southerly winds generate the equatorward-flowing Ningaloo Current on the inner shelf — this current facilitates sporadic upwelling events that enhance concentrations of nutrients, which in turn enhances pelagic primary productivity that supports the reef’s biota. The coast has experienced several marine heatwaves since 2011 that have caused mortality of corals, and probably seagrass, albeit relatively less than elsewhere along the coast. Wind-generated surface waves break over the fringing reef crest, causing cooling currents that tend to dampen warming — although this mechanism seems not to have prevented some areas from experiencing damaging heat, and corals in places that do not experience the wave-generated currents have experienced substantial mortality. Herbivores, from fish to green turtles, are abundant, and in the lagoon extensive stands of large brown algae provide an important habitat for newly-recruited fish. There has been a decline in abundance of some fish. Predictions of future pressures include a weaker but more variable Leeuwin Current, and increased human use. The ability of Ningaloo’s ecosystems to withstand growing pressures will depend partly on the rate and magnitude of global warming, but also on actions that manage local pressures from increasing human use. These actions will rely on continued science to provide the evidence needed to identify the pressures, the changes they create and the ways that we can mitigate them.

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