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Groundwater Contamination and Remediation

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ISBN: 9783038974291 9783038974307 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-430-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:01:53
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This Special Issue of Water brings together 10 studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the broader context of biogeochemistry.

Selected Papers from 2017 International Conference on Micro/Nanomachines

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ISBN: 9783038970811 / 9783038970828 Year: Pages: VIII, 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-082-8 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 17:08:18
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The 2017 International Conference on Micro/Nanomachines (http://www.icmnm.org/) was held in Wuhan, China, 25–28 August, 2017. Micro/nanomotors (MNMs), which are defined as micro/nanodevices capable of converting energy into autonomous motion, can be used to pick up, transport, and release various cargoes within a liquid medium. They have important potential applications, for example, in drug delivery, biosensors, protein and cell separation, microsurgeries, and environment remediation. MNMs can be classified into two categories, according to their propulsion mechanism. In this respect, self-propelled MNMs are capable of moving autonomously without external intervention, but they either require toxic fuel or have a short lifespan. MNMs actuated by external fields, such as light, magnetic field, and acoustic waves, are not subject to these problems, do not require toxic fuels, nor give rise to by-products during the motion process. For both self-propelled and field-actuated MNMs, there is still a long way to go before we reach practical applications. The future development of MNMs should be focused on improving the energy conversion efficiency through structure optimization, exploring new propulsion mechanisms and endowing MNMs with environmental responses for self-navigation, detection, and specific operations. In this way, MNMs will approach their practical application in biomedicine, environment treatment, microengineering, etc.

Optimizing Miscanthus for the Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes to Products

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455669 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-566-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In this Research Topic we report advances in fundamental and applied aspects of the perennial C4 bioenergy crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) and its role in mitigating climate change as part of the bioeconomy. Miscanthus is extremely well suited for bioenergy, biofuel and bioproduct production over a wide geographic area including Europe and North America as well as its native Asia.

Miscanthus offers a unique perspective within plant science: the challenge is to domesticate this novel crop for diverse environments and uses while simultaneously developing sustainable value chains to displace fossil fuels and contribute to climate change mitigation. Contributions to this Research Topic were offered from leading Miscanthus researchers from different parts of the world. We accepted 16 articles from 95 authors, which have generated 21,161 views at March 26 2018. Nine of the articles are the output of the European FP7 OPTIMISC project and describe multiple experiments investigating a common set of Miscanthus genotypes in Europe and Asia. These papers are complemented by seven additional articles from global authors, providing a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art of Miscanthus research and application.

Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants

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ISBN: 9783039213818 / 9783039213825 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-382-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Photoactive nanomaterials have been receiving increasing attention due to their potential application in the light-driven degradation of water and gas-phase pollutants. However, to exploit the great potential of photoactive materials and access their properties requires fine-tuning of their size/shape-dependent chemical–physical properties, and on the ability to integrate them in photoreactors or to deposit them onto large surfaces. Therefore, the synthetic approach as well as post-synthesis manipulation could strongly affect the final photocatalytic properties of the nanomaterial. The aim of the present Special Issue is to report on the most recent progress towards the application of photoactive nanomaterials and nanomaterial-based coatings in pollutant degradation, paying particular attention to cases close to real application: scalable synthetic approaches to nanocatalysts, preparation of nanocatalyst-based coatings, degradation of real pollutants and bacterial inactivation, and application in building materials.

Gaming and the Arts of Storytelling

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ISBN: 9783039212316 / 9783039212323 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-232-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book examines the notion of storytelling in videogames. This topic allows new perspectives on the enduring problem of narrative in digital games, while also opening up different avenues of inquiry. The collection looks at storytelling in games from many perspectives. Topics include the remediation of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness in games such as Spec Ops: The Line; the storytelling similarities in Twin Peaks and Deadly Premonition, a new concept of ‘choice poetics’; the esthetics of Alien films and games, and a new theoretical overview of early game studies on narrative

Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039211715 / 9783039211722 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-172-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The book compiles scientific articles describing advances in nanomaterial synthesis and their application in water remediation. The publications treat diverse problems such as dye degradation, heavy metal ion, as well as radioactive element capture and sequestration. There are 10 original research articles and one review article. The latter proposes graphene/CNT and Prussian blue nanocomposites for radioactive 137-cesium extraction from aqueous media. All reports thoroughly characterize the nanomaterials post-synthesis and describe their catalytic, photocatalytic, or ion exchange activities in contaminated water. The dyes studied in the collection are azo dyes, i.e. methylene blue and orange, rhodamine B, phenolic dyes viz. bromophenol blue, and other dyes with sulfonyl groups. Extraction of radioactive elements, including cationic 137Cs+ and anionic 125I?, is also investigated. The omnipresence of ZnO nanoparticles in everyday products and their effects in wastewater are also evaluated. Layered double hydroxide are capable of capturing Ag ions, which then has a catalytic effect on dye degradation. The nanomaterials considered are varied, viz., graphene, CNT, Prussian blue, nanoporous carbon, layered double hydroxides, magnetite, ferrites, organic powders, polymer membranes, bacteria, and inorganic nanomaterials such as MnO and Ag. The book targets an interdisciplinary readership.

Removal of Organic Pollution in Water Environment

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ISBN: 9783039218400 / 9783039218417 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-841-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contains a large amount of various organic compounds and is the main source of pollution of the aquatic environment. Therefore, the search for effective methods of wastewater and other polluted water treatment is an important element of caring for the natural environment. This book presents research on the determination and removal of environmentally hazardous organic compounds from aqueous samples. The articles included in this book describe the results of examinations, at the laboratory scale, of the efficiency of chemical as well as physical processes for the removal or degradation of selected model pollutants. Environmental studies, especially those concerning the determination of trace impurities, require effective isolation and concentration procedures. The methods used for this purpose should meet the requirements of green chemistry. The liquid phase microextraction procedures and use of electrochemical methods described in this book seem to be proper for environmental studies, as they are effective and environmentally friendly.

Element-Doped Functional Carbon-based Materials

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ISBN: 9783039282241 / 9783039282258 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-225-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Carbon materials are one of the most fascinating materials because of their unique properties and potential use in several applications. They can be obtained from residues or by using advanced synthesis technologies like chemical vapor deposition. The carbon family is very broad, ranging from classical activated carbons to more advanced species such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. The surface chemistry is one of the most interesting aspects of this broad family of materials, which allows the incorporation of different types of chemical functionalities or heteroatoms on the carbon surface, such as O, N, B, S, or P, which can modify the acid–base character, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, or the electronic properties of these materials and, thus, determine the final application. This book represents a collection of original research articles and communications focused on the synthesis, properties, and applications of heteroatom-doped functional carbon materials.

Assessment and Governance of Sustainable Soil Management

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214792 / 9783039214808 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-480-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The role of soils for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals is multifarious. Soils are the essential basis for food and biomass provision in support of food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7). Soil carbon sequestration is paramount for climate action (SDG 13). Soil-mediated water purification and retention, nutrient and matter cycling, and soils habitat functions are essential for maintaining ecosystem services and biodiversity (SDG 15). Healthy soils perform well in all these functions simultaneously. However, the globally increasing demand for food, fiber, and bio-based products poses massive challenges to soil health. Minimizing trade-offs between biomass production and soil health requires systemic approaches to assessment and governance of sustainable soil management in agriculture and food systems. It provides interdisciplinary insights into key questions: What are the impacts of agricultural management practices on sustainability targets in specific geophysical and socio-economic contexts? What are the opportunities and risks of future trends such as climate change, digitalization, and emerging technologies for soil management and soil health? How can institutions and governance instruments be improved to enable decision makers to take action on sustainable soil management? The book was initiated in the frame of the National German research program ‘BonaRes—Soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy’, and it is meant to trigger interdisciplinary thinking.

Keywords

conservation agriculture --- crop–livestock interactions --- Syria --- soil health --- agricultural innovation --- arid oasis --- combination of modern and indigenous knowledge --- Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response sustainability framework --- bayesian network --- soil functions --- conservation agriculture --- conventional farming --- zero tillage --- environmental zones --- phosphorus --- legal comparison --- governance --- sustainable agriculture --- fertilization --- soil protection --- Germany --- Costa Rica --- Nicaragua --- crop rotation modelling --- spatially explicit --- dynamic programming --- gross income --- carob --- yield --- soils --- desertification --- coffee by-products --- nutrient composition --- N leaching --- production --- so-called organic fertilizer --- ecosystem services --- governance --- institutions --- land --- property rights --- soils --- sustainability --- landowner --- tenant --- rent price --- rent proportion --- yield potential --- sustainable soil management --- soil degradation --- soil functions --- soil framework directive --- soil policy --- soil threats --- contamination --- sealing --- soil compaction --- risk assessment --- soil functions --- soil management --- subsoil --- compaction --- agricultural yields --- soil functions --- societal acceptance --- farmer motivations --- subsoil loosening --- alfalfa --- sustainable soil management --- resource scarcity --- Germany --- ecosystem services --- soil food web --- earthworms --- monitoring --- water infiltration --- agricultural policy --- behavioural studies --- literature review --- soil functions --- soil pressures --- justifying soil protection --- sustainable soil management --- creation ethics --- Laudato si’ --- property rights --- German Constitutional Law --- soil --- ecosystem services --- land management --- soil remediation --- Europe --- soil functions --- agricultural practices --- sustainability assessment --- ecosystem services --- resource use efficiency --- soil policy --- soil governance

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