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In 1692, Newton wrote: "That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action or force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters any competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws, but whether this agent be material or immaterial is a question I have left to the consideration of my readers". One of them who, just over 200 years later, picked up the baton of Newton was Albert Einstein. His General Theory of Relativity, which had its centenary in 2015, opened up new windows on our comprehension of Nature, disclosed new, previously unpredictable, phenomena occurring when relative velocities dramatically change in intense gravitational fields reaching values close to the speed of light and, for the first time after millennia of speculations, put Cosmology on the firm grounds of empirically testable science. This Special Issue was dedicated to this grand achievement of the human thought.
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Ist unser Denken und somit die Weltsicht für alle Menschen gleich oder sprachspezifisch? Auf diese uralte Fragestellung, der bereits Wilhelm von Humboldt nachgegangen ist, gibt dieses Buch eine eindeutig bejahende Antwort: Unsere Weltanschauung wird durch die Grammatik der eigenen Muttersprache(n) geprägt, sodass Menschen Ereignisse sprachspezifisch wahrnehmen, versprachlichen und auch erinnern. Diese grundlegenden Erkenntnisse sind durch den hier gewählten experimentellen Zugang psycholinguistischer Methoden (z.B. EyeTracking) erstmalig möglich.Der Einfluss von Sprache auf Kognition erweist sich darüber hinaus für Sprachkontakt als extrem relevant. Infolge des über Jahrhunderte andauernden Sprachkontakts zwischen dem Deutschen und Tschechischen hat sich das AspektSystem des Tschechischen dahingehend geändert, dass die Ereigniskonzeptualisierung im Tschechischen wie im Deutschen verläuft und das Tschechische sich systematisch von anderen ost und westslawischen Sprachen absetzt.
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The aim of this twovolume title is to give a comprehensive review of one hundred years of development of general relativity and its scientific influences. This unique title provides a broad introduction and review to the fascinating and profound subject of general relativity, its historical development, its important theoretical consequences, gravitational wave detection and applications to astrophysics and cosmology. The series focuses on five aspects of the theory:Genesis, Solutions and EnergyEmpirical FoundationsGravitational WavesCosmologyQuantum GravityThe first three topics are covered in Volume 1 and the remaining two are covered in Volume 2. While this is a twovolume title, it is designed so that each volume can be a standalone reference volume for the related topic.
General Relativity  Gravitation  Gravitational Waves  Cosmology  Quantum Gravity
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The aim of this twovolume title is to give a comprehensive review of one hundred years of development of general relativity and its scientific influences. This unique title provides a broad introduction and review to the fascinating and profound subject of general relativity, its historical development, its important theoretical consequences, gravitational wave detection and applications to astrophysics and cosmology. The series focuses on five aspects of the theory:Genesis, Solutions and EnergyEmpirical FoundationsGravitational WavesCosmologyQuantum GravityThe first three topics are covered in Volume 1 and the remaining two are covered in Volume 2. While this is a twovolume title, it is designed so that each volume can be a standalone reference volume for the related topic.
General Relativity  Gravitation  Gravitational Waves  Cosmology  Quantum Gravity
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The four volumes of the proceedings of MG14 give a broad view of all aspects of gravitational physics and astrophysics, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments. The scientific program of the meeting included 35 morning plenary talks over 6 days, 6 evening popular talks and 100 parallel sessions on 84 topics over 4 afternoons.Volume A contains plenary and review talks ranging from the mathematical foundations of classical and quantum gravitational theories including recent developments in string theory, to precision tests of general relativity including progress towards the detection of gravitational waves, and from supernova cosmology to relativistic astrophysics, including topics such as gamma ray bursts, black hole physics both in our galaxy and in active galactic nuclei in other galaxies, and neutron star, pulsar and white dwarf astrophysics.The remaining volumes include parallel sessions which touch on dark matter, neutrinos, Xray sources, astrophysical black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs, binary systems, radiative transfer, accretion disks, quasars, gamma ray bursts, supernovas, alternative gravitational theories, perturbations of collapsed objects, analog models, black hole thermodynamics, numerical relativity, gravitational lensing, large scale structure, observational cosmology, early universe models and cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation, global structure, singularities, chaos, EinsteinMaxwell systems, wormholes, exact solutions of Einstein's equations, gravitational waves, gravitational wave detectors and data analysis, precision gravitational measurements, quantum gravity and loop quantum gravity, quantum cosmology, strings and branes, selfgravitating systems, gamma ray astronomy, cosmic rays and the history of general relativity.
General Relativity  Gravitation  Astrophysics  Quantum Gravity  Cosmology  Theoretical Physics  String Theory  Gravitational Wave  Gamma Ray Burst  Black Hole  Active Galactic Nuclei  Neutron Star  Pulsar  White Dwarf  Dark Matter  Neutrinos  Xray Sources  Binary Systems  Radiative Transfer  Accretion Disks  Supernova  Black Hole Thermodynamics  Numerical Relativity  Gravitational Lensing  Large Scale Structure  Observational Cosmology  Early Universe Models  Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  Inhomogeneous Cosmology  Inflation  EinsteinMaxwell Systems  Wormholes  Exact Solutions of Einstein's Equations  Gravitational Wave Detectors and Data Analysis  Precision Gravitational Measurements  Loop Quantum Gravity  Quantum Cosmology  Cosmic Rays
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It is common believe that the centers of all galaxies exhibit supermassive black holes with masses ranging from millions up to billions of the mass of our Sun. By accreting surrounding matter, the luminosity of these galactic nuclei can outshine the emission of their host galaxies. If this is the case, they are called active galactic nuclei. Some of these objects eject powerful outflows composed of plasma, called jets. These jets can produce nonthermal radiation which observable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to the gammaray frequencies. At highest frequencies (TeV range) most of the detected active galaxies have jets directed along or close to the line of sight. However, also galaxies with larger angles to the line of sight showing fascinating features were discovered, in seeming contradiction to traditional models for these socalled radio galaxies. Thus, the latter are of particular importance for understanding active galactic nuclei in general. This Special Issue contains reviews and research articles about the current knowledge of radio galaxies at TeV energies, including observational results and theoretical models. It is intended to guide the interested reader deeper into this fascinating discipline of modern day astronomy.
gammarays  radio galaxies  emission: nonthermal  origin: jet  origin: black hole  gammarays: observation  gammarays: theory  general relativity  particle acceleration  stars: black holes  active galactic nuclei  radio galaxies  gammarays  jets  active galactic nucleus  radio galaxy  Centaurus A  GeV ?rays  TeV ?rays  light curve  discrete correlation function  galaxies: active  galaxies: jets  Xrays: binaries  relativistic processes ISM: jets and outflows  magnetohydrodynamics  radiation mechanisms: nonthermal  radio galaxies  3C 84  radio interferometry  VLBA  TeV emission  active galactic nuclei  radio galaxies  gammarays  jets  emission: nonthermal  GeV ?rays  TeV ?rays  active galactic nuclei  radio galaxies  emission: nonthermal  gammarays
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cellfree biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, selfrenewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize stateoftheart tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells  Wharton’s Jelly tissue  HLAG  mixed lymphocyte reaction  vitrification  VS55  long term storage  umbilical arteries  nerve regeneration  nerve conduit  esophagus  Barret’s esophagus  decellularization  CHAPS  SDS  histological images  tissue engineered construct  language of relativity  scaffold categorization  evolution of scaffold  sevenfolder logics  cell culture  3D scaffold  dynamicity and dimensionality  traditional scaffold  novel scaffold  future scaffold engineering  laws of system evolution  3DPVS  vibrating nature of universe.  erectile dysfunction  MSCs  stem cells  platelet lysate  IIEF5 questionnaire  fibrin gel  platelet rich plasma  cord blood units  platelets  TGF?1  proteomic analysis  multiparameter  factorial design  Wnt signaling  TGF? signaling  FGF signaling  human induced pluripotent stem cells  pluripotency and commitment  tissue engineering  regenerative medicine  stem cells  scaffolds  MSCs  iPSCs  nerve conduit  fibrin gel  scaffold classification  Wnt signaling
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During the past few decades, plasma science has witnessed a great growth in laboratory studies, in simulations, and in space. Plasma is the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe. It is a state in which ionized matter (even as low as 1%) becomes highly electrically conductive. As such, longrange electric and magnetic fields dominate its behavior. Cosmic plasmas are mostly associated with stars, supernovae, pulsars and neutron stars, quasars and active galaxies at the vicinities of black holes (i.e., their jets and accretion disks). Cosmic plasma phenomena can be studied with different methods, such as laboratory experiments, astrophysical observations, and theoretical/computational approaches (i.e., MHD, particleincell simulations, etc.). They exhibit a multitude of complex magnetohydrodynamic behaviors, acceleration, radiation, turbulence, and various instability phenomena. This Special Issue addresses the growing need of the plasma science principles in astrophysics and presents our current understanding of the physics of astrophysical plasmas, their electromagnetic behaviors and properties (e.g., shocks, waves, turbulence, instabilities, collimation, acceleration and radiation), both microscopically and macroscopically. This Special Issue provides a series of stateoftheart reviews from international experts in the field of cosmic plasmas and electromagnetic phenomena using theoretical approaches, astrophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and stateoftheart simulation studies.
laserinduced nuclear reactions  highpower laser systems  laser plasma  nuclear astrophysics  effective lifetime  26Al  active galactic nuclei  relativistic jets  magnetic fields  radio interferometry  black holes  accretion disks  Xray binaries  active galactic nuclei  magnetic fields  accretion disks  MHD winds  accreting black holes  MHD–accretion  accretion discs–jets  AGN  active galaxies  blazars  multiwavelength astronomy  mutimessenger astronomy  neutrino astrophysics  polarization  active galactic nuclei  relativistic jets  magnetohydrodynamics  plasma physics  numerical methods  particleincell simulations  relativistic jets  the Weibel instability  kinklike instability  mushroom instability  global jets  helical magnetic fields  recollimation shocks  jets  radiation mechanism: nonthermal  galaxies: active  gammaray bursts  TBD  cosmic rays  massive star supernovae  cosmic ray knee and ankle  GRMHD  numerical relativity  relativistic astrophysics  jets  high energy astrophysics
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The book edition of the Universe Special Issue “Compact Stars in the QCD Phase Diagram” is devoted to the overarching aspects shared between heavyion collisions and compact star astrophysics in investigating the hadrontoquark matter phase transition in the equation of state of strongly interacting matter in different regions of the phase diagram of QCD. It comprises 22 review and research articles that, together, will serve as a useful guide in educating both young and senior scientists in this emerging field that represents an intersection of the communities of strongly interacting matter theory, heavyion collision physics and compact star astrophysics.
heavyion collisions  directed flow  hydrodynamics  deconfinement  hybrid stars  neutron stars  equation of state  ? meson condensation  maximum mass  ? resonances  finite temperature  finite density  quarkgluon plasma  finite size  speed of sound  neutron stars  equation of state  inmedium effects  neutrino  Quantum Chromodynamics  dense matter  vector interaction  neutron stars  equation of state  QCD matter  phase transition  critical point  modified excludedvolume mechanism  dense matter  equation of state  stars: neutron  pulsars: general, pulsars: PSR J0737 ? 3039A  pulsars: PSR J1757 ? 1854  relativistic heavyion collisions  monte carlo simulations  transport theory  strangeness  neutron stars  star oscillations  hadron–quark continuity  neutron stars  QCD phase diagram  neutron stars  stellar magnetic field  stellar structure  stellar evolution  neutron star  equation of state  phase transition  quark matter  pulsars  quark stars  general relativity  Gravitational waves  Gammaray bursts  nuclear matter  neutron stars  quarks  combustion  neutron star  QCD matter  phase transition  critical point  neutron stars  gravitational waves  equation of state  chiral symmetry  axion QED  quarkhole pairing  colddense QCD  magnetic DCDW  quark matter  hadronic matter  quark deconfinement  neutron star matter  nuclear equation of state  phase transition  crystalline structure  neutrino emissivities  cluster virial expansion  quarkhadron matter  Mott dissociation  BethUhlenbeck equation of state  heavyion collisions  supernova explosions  masstwin stars  nuclear symmetry energy  heavyion collisions  transport theory  collective flow  light cluster emission  meson production  quarkhadron phase transition  pasta phases  speed of sound  hybrid compact stars  massradius relation  GW170817
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Quantum information has dramatically changed information science and technology, looking at the quantum nature of the information carrier as a resource for building new information protocols, designing radically new communication and computation algorithms, and ultrasensitive measurements in metrology, with a wealth of applications. From a fundamental perspective, this new discipline has led us to regard quantum theory itself as a special theory of information, and has opened routes for exploring solutions to the tension with general relativity, based, for example, on the holographic principle, on noncausal variations of the theory, or else on the powerful algorithm of the quantum cellular automaton, which has revealed new routes for exploring quantum fields theory, both as a new microscopic mechanism on the fundamental side, and as a tool for efficient physical quantum simulations for practical purposes. In this golden age of foundations, an astonishing number of new ideas, frameworks, and results, spawned by the quantum information theory experience, have revolutionized the way we think about the subject, with a new research community emerging worldwide, including scientists from computer science and mathematics.
reconstruction of quantum theory  entanglement  monogamy  quantum nonlocality  conserved informational charges  limited information  complementarity  characterization of unitary group and state spaces  algebraic quantum theory  C*algebra  gelfand duality  classical context  bohrification  process theory  classical limit  purity  higherorder interference  generalised probabilistic theories  Euclidean Jordan algebras  Pauli exclusion principle  quantum foundations  Xray spectroscopy  underground experiment  silicon drift detector  measurement uncertainty relations  relative entropy  position  momentum  quantum mechanics  the measurement problem  collapse models  Xrays  quantum gravity  discrete spacetime  causal sets  path summation  entropic gravity  physical computing models  complexity classes  causality  blind source separation (BSS)  qubit pair  exchange coupling  entangled pure state  unentanglement criterion  probabilities in quantum measurements  independence of random quantum sources  iterant  Clifford algebra  matrix algebra  braid group  Fermion  Dirac equation  quantum information  quantum computation  semiclassical physics  quantum control  quantum genetic algorithm  samplingbased learning control (SLC)  quantum foundations  relativity  quantum gravity  cluster states  multipartite entanglement  percolation  Shannon information  quantum information  quantum measurements  consistent histories  incompatible frameworks  single framework rule  probability theory  entropy  quantum relative entropy  quantum information  quantum mechanics  inference  quantum measurement  quantum estimation  macroscopic quantum measurement  quantum annealing  adiabatic quantum computing  hard problems  Hadamard matrix  binary optimization  reconstruction of quantum mechanics  conjugate systems  Jordan algebras  quantum correlations  Gaussian states  Gaussian unitary operations  continuousvariable systems  Wignerfriend experiment  nogo theorem  quantum foundations  interpretations of quantum mechanics  subsystem  agent  conservation of information  purification  group representations  commuting subalgebras  quantum walks  Hubbard model  Thirring model  quantum information  quantum foundations  quantum theory and gravity
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