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Supraspinal Control of Automatic Postural Responses Which Pathway Does What?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452309 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-230-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Abstract

Rapid corrective actions, termed automatic postural responses, are essential to counter the destabilizing effect of mechanical perturbations during natural behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that automatic postural responses of the limbs and body share a number of capabilities in adapting to the prevailing circumstances and these abilities reflect contributions from multiple supraspinal pathways, including brainstem nuclei, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex. However, we do not know the context-dependent contribution from specific generators, whether different neural pathways have a common role across different effectors, and how sensory and central deficits in one pathway are accommodated by those remaining. Bridging these gaps is essential to integrate the diverse set of studies, develop general theories of motor control, and explicate how the nervous system addresses the partially distinct behavioral demands of co-evolved effector system. The considerable flexibility and multiple interacting pathways of automatic postural responses also make it ideal for understanding how powerful formal theories, like optimal feedback control, are achieved by a distributed hierarchical neural network.

Keywords

reflex --- posture --- supraspinal --- feedback --- neural control

The Trigemino-Cardiac Reflex: Beyond the Diving Reflex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454006 Year: Pages: 58 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-400-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) is a well established brain-stem reflex and commonly manifests as bradycardia, asystole, hypotension and / or apnea. This phenomenon was extensively explored in the recent past. However, the area related to its exact bio-physiological mechanism, neuro-anatomical linkages, clinical implications, its role in non neurological events and future directions should need to be further investigated. Therefore, this present research topic on TCR would mainly focus on various aspects of TCR and present a comprehensive and exhaustive overview about a phenomena that gains more and more interest during the last few years. Our goal is to present models about the different aspects of the TCR to develop in-depth understanding of TCR.

New Advances in Electrocochleography for Clinical and Basic Investigation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455041 Year: Pages: 315 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-504-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Electrocochleography (ECochG) is an approach for objective measurements of physiologic responses from the inner ear. Measurements have classically been made from electrodes placed in the outer ear canal, on the tympanic membrane, the round window niche, or inside the cochlea. Recent innovations have led to ECochG being used for exciting new purposes that drive clinical practice and contribute to the basic understanding of inner ear physiology. Cochlear implant recording electrodes can monitor the preservation of residual, low-frequency acoustic hearing, both in the operating room and post-operatively. ECochG measurements can quantify differential effects of inner ear surgery or other manipulations on vestibular and auditory physiology simultaneously. Various attributes of cognitive neuroscience can be addressed with ECochG measurements from the auditory periphery. These advances in ECochG provide a way to understand a variety of inner ear diseases and are likely to be of value to many groups in their own clinical and basic research.

Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling

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ISBN: 9783039212255 / 9783039212262 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-226-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As CMOS scaling is approaching the fundamental physical limits, a wide range of new nanoelectronic materials and devices have been proposed and explored to extend and/or replace the current electronic devices and circuits so as to maintain progress with respect to speed and integration density. The major limitations, including low carrier mobility, degraded subthreshold slope, and heat dissipation, have become more challenging to address as the size of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) has decreased to nanometers, while device integration density has increased. This book aims to present technical approaches that address the need for new nanoelectronic materials and devices. The focus is on new concepts and knowledge in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications in logic, memory, sensors, photonics, and renewable energy. This research on nanoelectronic materials and devices will be instructive in finding solutions to address the challenges of current electronics in switching speed, power consumption, and heat dissipation and will be of great interest to academic society and the industry.

Keywords

UAV --- vision localization --- hierarchical --- landing --- information integration --- memristor --- synaptic device --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity --- neuromorphic computation --- memristive device --- ZnO films --- conditioned reflex --- quantum dot --- sample grating --- cross-gain modulation --- bistability --- distributed Bragg --- semiconductor optical amplifier --- topological insulator --- field-effect transistor --- nanostructure synthesis --- optoelectronic devices --- topological magnetoelectric effect --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- silicon on insulator (SOI) --- graphene --- supercapacitor --- energy storage --- ionic liquid --- UV irradiation --- luminescent centres --- bismuth ions --- two-photon process --- oscillatory neural networks --- pattern recognition --- higher order synchronization --- thermal coupling --- vanadium dioxide --- band-to-band tunneling --- L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor --- double-gate tunnel field-effect-transistor --- corner-effect --- AlGaN/GaN --- high-electron mobility transistor (HEMTs) --- p-GaN --- enhancement-mode --- 2DEG density --- InAlN/GaN heterostructure --- polarization effect --- quantum mechanical --- gallium nitride --- MISHEMT --- dielectric layer --- interface traps --- current collapse --- PECVD --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- recessed channel array transistor (RCAT) --- on-current (Ion) --- off-current (Ioff) --- subthreshold slope (SS) --- threshold voltage (VTH) --- saddle FinFET (S-FinFET) --- potential drop width (PDW) --- shallow trench isolation (STI) --- source/drain (S/D) --- conductivity --- 2D material --- Green’s function --- reflection transmision method --- variational form --- dual-switching transistor --- third harmonic tuning --- low voltage --- high efficiency --- CMOS power amplifier IC --- insulator–metal transition (IMT) --- charge injection --- Mott transition --- conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) --- gate field effect --- atomic layer deposition (ALD) --- zinc oxide --- silicon --- ZnO/Si --- electron affinity --- bandgap tuning --- conduction band offset --- heterojunction --- solar cells --- PC1D --- vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) --- back current blocking layer (BCBL) --- gallium nitride (GaN) --- normally off power devices --- n/a

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